The Stomata in a plant — is the pores in the layers of the epidermis. They serve for the evaporation of excess water and gas exchange of a flower with the environment.
For the First time came in 1675, when the naturalist Marcello Malpighi published his discovery in the work Anatome plantarum. However, he was unable to unravel their real purpose, which was the impetus for the development of further hypotheses and research.
Then the baton was taken by the contemporary Marcello — Nehemiah Grew. He suggested that the value of stomata in plant respiration similar to the role of the trachea in insects, and in some ways his prediction was close to the truth.
In the nineteenth century, the long-awaited progress in research. Thanks Hugo von Pray Sindinero and Simon became known, the main principle of the stomata and their classification by construction type.
These discoveries have given a powerful impetus to the understanding of the functioning of the pores, however, some aspects of the past studies continue to be studied until now.
These parts of plants, such as epidermis and a stoma refer to the internal structure of the sheet, however, you should first study its external structure. Thus, the sheet consists of:
The External structure of the sheet can vary depending on its form and type (simple/complex), but all of the above parts are always present.
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To the internal structure include the epidermis and a stoma, as well as different forming fabrics and veins. Each element has its own design.
For Example, integumentary tissue the outer side of the sheet consists of living cells of different size and shape. The most superficial of them have transparency, allowing sunlight to penetrate inside the leaf.
For More small cells, located a little deeper, contain chloroplasts, giving the leaves a green color. Due to their properties they were called trailing. Depending on the degree of hydration they are compressed, form among themselves ulichnye the cracks.
The length of the stomata in a plant varies depending on the type and degree of illumination it receives. The largest pores can reach the size of 1 cm to Form a stoma guard cells that regulate its opening.
The Mechanism of their movement is quite complex and varies for different from other types of plants. Most of them - depending on the supply and the level of chloroplasts the tissue turgor of the cells can go down as well as rise, thereby adjusting the opening of the stomata.
Probably no need to dwell on this aspect, as a function of the sheet. Knows that even a schoolboy. But for that answer the stomata? Their task is to provide transpiration (process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation through the outer organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers), which is achieved due to the work of the guard cells. This mechanism protects the plant from drying out in hot weather and allows you to begin the process of decay under conditions of excessive humidity. The principle of its operation is very simple: if the amount of fluid in the cells is not high enough, the pressure on the walls decreases and stomatal slit closes, saving required to sustain moisture content.
And on the contrary, its excess leads to increased pressure and the opening of pores, through which the excess moisture evaporates. Because of this, the role of stomata in the cooling plants are also large, since the temperature of the air around it is through reduced transpiration.
Also located under the slit air cavity that serves for gas exchange. The air enters the plant through the pores in order to enter the process of photosynthesis and respiration. The extra oxygen is then vented to atmosphere by means of the same ustichnoe the cracks. Moreover, its presence or absence is often used for the classification of plants.
The Sheet is an external organ, which performed photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, guttaciej and vegetative reproduction. Moreover, it can accumulate moisture and organic substances through the stomata, and also to provide a plant of great adaptability to complicated environment conditions.
As water — the intracellular environment, excretion and circulation of the fluid inside the tree or flower is equally important for his life. Thus, the plant absorbs only 0.2 % of the moisture passing through it, the rest will be spent on transpiration and guttaciej, which is the movement of dissolved mineral salts and cooling.
Vegetative reproduction often occurs by cutting and rooting of leaves of flowers. Many plants are grown this way because the only way to preserve the purity of varieties.
As mentioned earlier, the modified leaves help to adapt to different environmental conditions. For example, the transformation of the spines of desert plants helps reduce moisture evaporation, antennae reinforce the functions of the stem, and large sizes often are used to store fluids and nutrients, where climatic conditions do not allow fuel stocks on a regular basis.
The list is endless. It's hard not to notice that these functions are the same for the leaves of flowers and trees.
Since ustichnaja typical for higher plants, it is present in all species, and it is a mistake to assume it away, even if the tree or flower has no leaves. The exception is kelp and other seaweeds.
The Structure of stomata and their work in conifers, ferns, horsetails, club mosses and mossy plants plants are different from those in flowering. Most of them the cracks are open and are actively involved in gas exchange and transpiration; the exceptions are cacti and succulents that have pores open at night and closed after the morning to conserve moisture in arid regions.
The Stomata in a plant, the leaves of which float on the surface of the water, located only in the upper layer of the epidermis, and the "sessile" leaves — at the bottom. The rest of the varieties of these cracks are present on both sides of the plate.
In dicotyledonous plants ulichnye cracks located from two parties of sheet of plate, but their number is in the lower part is somewhat larger than at the top. This difference is due to the need to reduce the evaporation of moisture from well-lit surface of the sheet.
For monocotyledonous plants there are no specifics regarding the location of the stomata, since it depends on the direction of growth plates. For example, the epidermis of plant leaves, oriented vertically, contains the same number then both the upper and lower layer.
As mentioned earlier, floating leaves with the underside ulichnye cracks are absent, because they absorb moisture through the cuticle, as well as fully aquatic plants, which like long at all.
Stomata of coniferous trees are found deep beneath the endoderm, which contributes to decreased ability to transpiration.
The location of the pores varies relative to the surface of the epidermis. The cracks can be on a par with the other “skin” of the cells to go above or below, to form the correct series, or to be scattered on the epithelial tissue randomly.
At cactus, suculents and other plants, the leaves which are missing or mutated, transformed into needle stomata located on the stems and fleshy parts.
The Stomata in a plant are divided into many types depending on the location of accompanying cells:
Here is the l...
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
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