Despite progress in science and technology, there are areas where the old and tested methods can not do. One of them-agriculture. Hardly possible to grow good grains, vegetables and fruits without the use of fertilizers. Production of mineral fertilizers in Russia has long been put on stream, the country is one of the world leaders in the production of some types of stimulant drugs. Where exactly are the companies providing the country and its partners fertilizers and what types of fertilizers are most common in Russia?
Let's Start with the theory. Production of mineral fertilizers in Russia and other countries of the world is divided into several types. Nitrogen fertilizers, a leader in the development of which is China, contribute to the formation of proteins in the plant, as well as accelerate the growth and increase productivity. Regarding phosphate fertilizers, the primacy of production which goes to USA, they can form a strong root system and improve the process of photosynthesis. The third category – potash fertilizers, the main exporter is Canada, help to develop resistance to drought and disease.
On the world market Russia is one of the leading places among the manufacturers. This is because raw materials for production of mineral fertilizers in Russia is much more diverse than in many other countries, this is due to the vast territory of the country where there are a variety of minerals. It should be noted that after the merger of two of Russia's largest companies, namely “Uralkali” and “Silvinit” in the world market appeared obvious competitor is the canadian leader producer of complex mineral fertilizers.
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The Main factories producing mineral fertilizers in Russia were built back in Soviet times. But then if they focused exclusively on the needs of the Soviet Union, and today their main task is to meet the global demand for fertilizers: the share of Russia in the world market various types of fertilizers is currently 6%. In this regard, an important role in the location of enterprises for the production of fertilizers began to play, not only raw materials, but also export factor – an unsuccessful location of the plant would entail additional transportation costs.
The Largest number of Russian companies in this field is in the nitrogen fertilizer sector. Major centers of production of mineral fertilizers in Russia is presented by such industrial giants as “Evrokhim”, “Minister” and “Akron”.
The Main exported product in this area is the ammonia and its derivatives - urea. A promising region is the far East where there are large reserves of feedstock-natural gas. Major centers of production of mineral fertilizers in Russia and support such companies with a world name, as «Gazprom», running the pipeline «Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok», as well as a new transmission channel of fertilizers in Asia, which will significantly reduce the cost of transportation.
In the segment of phosphate fertilizers production of mineral fertilizers in Russia – city Balakov (enterprise “Balakovo mineral fertilizers”, which accounts for about 60% of domestically produced phosphate fertilizers), and Cherepovets (holding “FosAgro-Cherepovets”).
In principle, the economic situation in this segment is more or less stable, although in recent years there has been a downward trend in production volumes. This is due to the fact that the former main partner, India, was set unreasonably low prices, thus, such trade was inappropriate for Russia. The main objective of enterprises today is the modernization with the aim of expanding the range of products. Promising partners in the field of phosphate fertilizers, experts believe countries in Africa and Latin America.
Potash – the most volatile in the industry. In the beginning of the century, in connection with the economic crisis, there has been a steady decline in demand, seriously affected the production of mineral fertilizers in Russia and a break with the partner company "Belaruskali”. The main producer in this region, “Uralkali”, was able to correct the situation by lower prices for export.
The Main partners of Russia in this sector are China and Brazil. It is worth noting also that the «Uralkali» reviewed its investment policy in modernization will be invested fewer funds in order to avoid overproduction and stagnation of goods in warehouses.
The Main areas of production of mineral fertilizers in Russia are concentrated in the European part of the country – is due to the fact that basic commodity reserves are in this region, while the East is still understudied in this direction. The main production facilities moved to the Urals, although the Central region of Russia has been equally involved in the chemical industry. Now, in connection with the reorientation of industry to the East, the former location of enterprises is not appropriate.
It is Worth noting that the placement of manufacturers is due mostly to the export factor, so there is a tendency to their location or about the immediate consumers, or about the pipelines that you can pass the same ammonia which is the basis for the production of nitrogen fertilizers; the same trend is in the phosphate segment, here the main role plays the presence of the consumer, which is why most of the factories located in major agricultural areas.
The Largest centers of production of mineral fertilizers in Russia – such enterprises as the “Minister”, “Evrokhim”, “the month” and “Akron". They are engaged in the export of complex fertilizers, that is, combine several types simultaneously.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that Russia has a unique resource inventory – extent of its territory can inexpensively produce any kinds of fertilizers. Due to the fact that the industry is still more focused on exports, experts say the shortage of fertilizers in Russian agriculture: the amount that is applied to agricultural land comparable to that used in Africa, but not in developed countries. The market is protected from shocks and relatively stable, as the industry is relatively exclusive and controlled by large and stable corporations. To change the current situation can only be the unexpected discovery of mineral deposits in the East, which will significantly expand the geography of the region.
The Production of mineral fertilizers in Russia now depends entirely on whether the country has overcome global competition. Acute problem of modernization of enterprises, reduce the cost of energy in manufacturing: world market gradually becomes saturated with cheaper products, which compete with Russian producers are not yet in force.
As for domestic sales, all in the hands of the state: the size of subsidies to agriculture will depend on domestic demand for fertilizer. The recent policy of Russia is directed to the expansion of land and acreage that is impossible without the use of various types of fertilizers.
Summarizing the above, it should be noted that, despite a number of difficulties, production of mineral fertilizers in Russia is at a very high level and shows a trend towards the development of the industry. Moreover, the current focus of the state on the development of agriculture and increasing world demand for fertilizer are great incentives for the modernization of enterprises and expansion of their range. It is likely that it will help Russia to improve its position in the world market, to refocus on a new, yet inexperienced partners....
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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