The characteristics of the scientific style of the text. The main characteristics of the scientific style of speech


2018-03-18 20:50:59




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In modern Russian it is customary to distinguish five main styles of speech. Each of them is peculiar to certain segments of the population and types of journalism. The most difficult to understand is considered to be the scientific style of speech. The reason for this is the large number of inclusions in the text specialized terms.

General concepts

The Scientific language is a communication tool in educational research and professional analytical activities. With this style of writing texts in real life for one reason or another I faced each man, without exception. Many people are more receptive to scientific language in oral form. signs of scienceToday, the mastery of the norms of this style is one of the most important components of Russian culture. Scientific information is often referred to the literary (bookish) language. The reason for this are the following modalities and stylistic features, as monologic in nature, striving for normalization of the terminology, think about each statement and simply a list of expressions.

The History of style

Scientific information has appeared due to the rapid development in various fields of knowledge in new specialized fields of activities. Initially, this style of presentation can be compared with the artistic narrative. However, in the Alexandrian period the scientific language is gradually separated from the literary. In those days the Greeks often used a special terminology that ordinary people just couldn't perceive properly. Also in this period began to show the signs of scientific style.

Initial specialized terminology was in Latin. Soon, however, scientists from around the world began to translate it into their languages. However, international way of transferring scientific information to this day is Latin. In the Renaissance, many professors have sought to precision and brevity of the writing, as much as possible to move away from the artistic elements of the presentation, as a literary emotion contrary to the canons of logical display things.

“Liberation” scientific style flowed very slowly. Examples include unflattering remarks of Descartes on the works of Galileo, his texts too belletrizovannuju. This opinion is shared by Kepler, believing that Italian physicist unreasonably often resorts to the artistic description of the nature of things. Eventually example of the style were the works of Newton.features of a scientific text styleThe Russian scientific language began to take shape only in the early 18th century. During this period, the authors of the relevant publications and translators began to create his own terminology. In the mid-18th century, Mikhail Lomonosov together with his followers gave impetus to the formation of scientific style. Many masters relied on the works of the Russian scientist, however, the final terminology was folded together only in the late 19th century.


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Types of scientific style

At the moment there are 2 classifications: traditional and advanced. According to the modern standards of the Russian language there are 4 types of scientific style. Each of them has its own specifics and requirements.

The Traditional classification of

1. A popular scientific text. His addressee is the audience who do not have special skills and knowledge in a certain area. Scientific-popular text retains most of the terms and clarity of presentation, however, his character is extremely simplified for comprehension. Also in this style are allowed to use emotional and expressive forms of speech. His task is to introduce the General public with some facts and phenomena. No wonder at the end of 1980-ies there appeared a subspecies of the style of scientific and artistic text. It minimized the use of technical terms and numbers, and their presence has a detailed explanation.

For the popular scientific style is characterized by the following features: comparison with ordinary objects, easy to read and interpret, simplify, the story about private events without a classification and overview. The presentation of this kind most often printed in books, magazines, children's encyclopedias.

2. Educational-scientific text. The addressee of such works are students. The purpose of the Epistle is familiarization with the facts necessary for the perception of a certain material. The information is presented in a General form with a large number of typical examples. This style inherent in the use of professional terminology, a strict classification and smooth transitions from overview to special cases. Works are published in the academic and methodological textbooks.scientific style examples3. Proper scientific text. Here are the destination experts and scientists. The aim of the work is a description of the specific facts, discoveries and trends. Scientific style, examples of which can be found in dissertations, reports and reviews, allows the use of not only terminology, but emotionless and personal insights.

4. Technical-scientific text. Work of this kind of style are addressed to specialists narrow profile. The aim is the application of knowledge and achievements into practice.

In the extended classification, in addition to the above species, are also informative and reference and scientific texts.

Basic science

The Variability of types of this language is based on total actual linguistic properties of speech activity, which is manifested regardless of the area (Humanities, exact, natural) and genre differences.

The Field of scientific style of communication significantly differs in that its purpose is unambiguous logic expression. The primary form of the language are concepts, reasoning, dynamic judgments, which appear in a strict sequence. Scientific information must always be filled with arguments that podderjivali would be the logical thought. All judgments are based on synthesis and analysis of available information.

The Characteristics of the scientific style of the text take the abstracted and generalized character. General extralinguistic features and properties of speech are:

  1. The Abstraction and generality of presentation. Almost every word denotes any term or abstract object. In narrow circles it is possible to hear such a thing as generally-scientific style. Examples of his distinctive features: the predominance in the text nouns, the use of generally accepted concepts, the use of verbs in personal forms, the passive construction of the phrase.
  2. The Logical presentation. All statements are based consistently, the facts are linked. This is achieved through the use of special syntactic structures, and characteristic means of communication.
  3. The Accuracy of the presentation. This property is a scientific style of speech is achieved due to the frequent use of terms, unambiguous expressions and vocabulary words.
  4. Proof of presentation. Each argument should be supported by appropriate arguments. The richness of the presentation. The meaning of the report exhausts the selected area of science.
  5. Objectivity of presentation. The lack of personal opinion in the transfer of meaning of the text. All the statements focused on the subject of the report and find the impersonal form of speech.scientific text examples texts

Language features

Scientific style finds its expression and consistency in defined units of speech. Its linguistic characteristics can be of 3 types:

  1. Lexical units. Determine the functional stylistic coloring of the text. They are characterized by a peculiar morphological form and syntax.
  2. Stylistic one. Responsible for neutral functional load of text. Thus, the determining factor becomes their quantitative predominance in the report. Separately branded units are found in the form of morphological forms. Rarely they can acquire syntax.
  3. Misteriya units. Also called neutral language items. Used in all styles of speech. Occupy the largest part of the text.

Scientific style and its features

Each form and type of speech has its illustrative properties. The main characteristics of the scientific style: lexical, linguistic, and syntactical.

The first kind of properties include the use of specialized phraseology and terminology. Lexical characteristics of scientific style of speech most often found in words with specific meaning. Examples: “body” is a term from physics, "acid" - chemistry, etc. these characteristics are inherent in the use of generalizing words, such as “usually”, “usually”, “regularly”. Expressive and conversational vocabulary to be used should not. On the other hand, allowed phrases, clichés, various drawings and symbols. In this case, needs to contain links to sources of information. It is important that speech was filled with international words. The narrative comes from a third party without the frequent use of synonyms. Lexical characteristics of scientific style - 6 class secondary school, so it should be a popular language. Narrow terminology is not common.signs of scientific style of speechLinguistic features of scientific style of the text must meet such requirements as impartiality and lack of affect. It is important that all phrases and concepts were clear.


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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