In the middle of the sixteenth century, the monarchy in France was going through hard times. Italian war, which ended in defeat, led to a severe crisis of power and economy. French feudal lords, seeking high positions, new land and the spoils of war, was very disappointed and annoyed by such failure. All their accusations fell on the king and his courtiers. After the war, the aristocracy was almost ruined. Therefore the nobility, as soon as the movement of the Huguenots, he immediately began to support and use it against Central government, trying to get the most concessions for themselves. So who are the Huguenots in France? The answer to this question you will find in the article.
The Inhabitants of Western Europe professed the Catholicism, but the beginning of the XVI century began to grow discontent among the faithful about how things work in the Church. They were convinced that the Pope and his entourage just thinking about how to consolidate his power and become even richer. Showing their greed and acquisitiveness of the clergy thereby set a bad example to the congregation. These grievances led to the fact that there is a new movement called the reformation. His goal was to change policy of the Christian Church. People who joined this movement were called Protestants, because they did not agree with the current state of Affairs.
The Huguenot-a French Protestant of the XVI-XVII centuries. The first of them is called Lutheran in honor of the German monk Martin Luther, who lived in the city of Wittenberg. In 1517 he made a list consisting of 95 points, which is posted on the door of his Church. This document not only denounced the individual clergyman, but was also a kind of protest against the wrong policies of the entire Roman Catholic Church.
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Luther was convinced that everyone has the right to self-study the Scriptures. For this purpose he translated the Bible from Latin into German. He was the first, and after him the Scripture and began to publish in other languages.
As expected, the Catholic Church condemned Luther. Much to our surprise, he was supported not only ordinary people but also some of the rulers in Europe. So, the English king Henry VIII decided to divorce his wife and marry Anne Boleyn. But the Pope did not give permission, so the ruler of England ceased relations with the Vatican, and then declared himself head of the Church in their country.
Following the German monk began to appear and other of a strong personality, who shared the ideas of the reformation. As a result, in Protestantism there are several currents. If in Germany, these believers were called Lutherans, in France the Huguenot – this is a Calvinist. The name of the faith was due to Jean Calvin (1509-1564). He was a famous French theologian, and his works have managed to be able to present all the basic aspects of the Christian faith.
I Must say that after such separation the Catholics began to torture and even hang Protestants, and others, in turn, began to attack the adherents of the Pope. But all of them were convinced that causing suffering to their enemies, they save their souls from the eternal torments of hell.
Over time, Protestantism began to spread throughout France. First the Huguenot – it is a religious person who shared the views of the new religion. He could be the representative of the plebeian or the middle classes and came from the nobility or the feudal nobility. Later, the concept has expanded. In the 60-ies of the XVI century and in the 20-ies of the XVII century, the Huguenot – this is not just a believer, he belonged to a religious-political group of Protestants-Calvinists.
The Beginning of military operations in France contributed to the weakness of the successors of Henry II. His sons - Francis II, who ruled only one year (1559-1560), Charles IX (1560-1574) and Henry III (1574-1589), often becomes an instrument of intrigue that wove against each other the court, the feudal nobility.
Charles IX ascended the throne at the age of ten, and the Regent was his mother – Catherine de Medici, who ruled together with their favorites. By the sixties all the major feudal lords were divided into two powerful religious-political groups. One part of the nobles were on the side of Guise. They professed Catholicism. On their side was Catherine de Medici-Italian origin. The other part of the nobility belonged to the opposition and represented the Huguenot party, at the head of which stood the Bourbons, Admiral Coligny and the king of Navarre. I must say that at court there were those politicians who did not join any one of the warring parties. They tried to reconcile enemies, with which were the Huguenots and the Catholics.
1 Mar 1562 in the small town of vassi of the Duke of guise with his armed supporters attacked the congregation for the prayers of the people. It was the Huguenots, who were able to repel the treacherous Catholics. After an armed incident started an open confrontation. It was called the Huguenot wars (1562-1598).. They killed of Antoine de Bourbon and françois de guise. Since then, the war, which was attended by implacable enemies, – the Huguenots and the Catholics – turned into a series of tragic events that plunged France into chaos.
Once the armed conflict ended in 1570. It was a religious-political confrontation shocked the country. The end of the war marked Saint-Germain world. According to him, the French Huguenots were granted freedom of religion, as well as control of a number of powerful fortresses.
The Ensuing truce has brought a tortured country and its people the satisfaction, but provoked outspoken displeasure from the side of the Catholics, in particular, of the family of Guise – an ancient French family originating from the Carolingians.
The leader of the Protestants was the Admiral de Coligny. The Huguenot by conviction, he was included in the Council of State, acting under Charles IX of Valois. De Coligny, whose influence at court was immense, to further strengthen a long-awaited peace, persuaded the king to arrange a marriage between Marguerite de Valois and Henry of Navarre.
The Admiral Coligny was a great politician and diplomat, wishing prosperity to his country. He wanted France became powerful, but Catholic Spain, which was considered at that time Queen of the seas, were not allowed to do so. The Admiral advised the king to provide military assistance to the Dutch Protestants fighting for their independence. He knew that if Charles IX to agree, the war with Spain cannot be avoided. But Coligny had also realized that it would serve to unite the Huguenots and Catholics, as national interests above all others.
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589), was, the mother of the young king, was very unhappy that the influence of the Huguenots at court was growing. She did not want war with the Spanish Catholics. The Queen mother believed that such action would cause a national catastrophe. In the event of war, the Pope and all Catholic Europe was in arms against France.
In 1572, was another attempt to reconcile the two warring sides. Invented a plan by which the sister of king Charles IX – Margaret de Valois – was to marry the Protestant Henri of Navarre. Thus, this marriage could end the bloodshed in France, and the war of the Huguenots and the Catholics on this would have ended.
The Wedding was to be held on August 18. It gathered all the noble Huguenots. Most of them settled temporarily in Paris, where was located the home of the Catholic nobles. Protestant know looked just gorgeous compared to them, and this caused great discontent among urban residents, who because of high taxes and prices on food could not live as well. Rich's wedding was the reason for the dissatisfaction, as her organization had spent a lot of money, taken of course from the purses and so poor taxpayers. Therefore, the situation in Paris gradually escalated until it reached its climax.
The Situation in the city was intense, and it is not slow to take advantage of the family of Guise. Along with Catherine de Medici they have organized a plot to assassinate de Coligny. The twenty-second of August 1572, the Admiral was passing by the house of Guise, he was wounded in the hand by a shot fired right out the window. Attempted murder at this time failed. But the Catholics were not going to abandon their plans. Night of the 24th of August, a mob of angry armed men broke into the house, where he was brutally murdered Admiral Coligny Huguenot. It is a crime and initiated the events that swept across the country. Thus began the bloody night of the Huguenots.
Arrived at the wedding in Paris, supporters of Henry of Navarre on the night of 23 to 24 August 1572, was cruelly slaughtered. This wild massacre of the Huguenots in France claimed the lives of nearly 3 thousand people.
And it all started with the fact that Catherine de Medici was able to convince the young king in a conspiracy organized against him by Protestants. She told him that you need to destroy all the nobles who were involved in this. The king succumbed to the persuasion of his mother. Immediately followed by the order to bring it to the floor...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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