Greece is a truly magical country. There is wind playing in the olive groves, the waves gently caressing the shore, and the sun allows to green and flowering nature even in winter. It seems that this Holy land is impregnated with some sort of amazing air, helping people to create beautiful and timeless. Greece, ancient Greece gave the world many great scientists, architects, poets, thinkers! It is not surprising therefore, that there took place the first modern Olympic games in the world.
Ancient Hellas was pagan country. The people there worshipped different gods, the most powerful of which was Zeus. He and his "colleagues" in the heavenly Pantheon lived on mount Olympus and were called the Olympians. For them, the Greeks built temples, and organized rituals and even sacrifices. Especially revered Zeus. In the days when was the first Olympics, Greece was often at war. Had the attacks of the invaders to reflect, and by new lands to capture. And the internecine skirmishes are constantly happening, because Greece was divided into dozens of areas. Each of them believed himself to be a small government with its own rules and ambitions. The people in those years was highly valued physical strength, agility and endurance, because without them it was hard to survive in combat. Therefore, men are very proud of their muscular bodies and wore clothes that did not hide the biceps. In Greece there was even a cult of a strong and healthy body. Was the thirteenth century before our era.
The story of the first Olympic games rich in myths and legends. The most popular of them - about the Delphic Oracle and king Iphitos. He was a brave Argonaut and a good king, wishing prosperity to his people. Approximately 885-884 years BC in Greece swept the plague that claimed thousands of lives. And then there's the endless strife prevailed. Ifit decided to go to Delphi to the Oracle. He wanted to know how to get the Hellas world at least for a short time. The Oracle advised the Greeks to adopt a belligerent competition, pleasing the gods. In their conduct, no one was supposed to take up arms, and the contest was to be held honestly and openly. Ifit ran to Sparta there the king Lycurgus. The Spartans were of great importance to physical exercise, and Lycurgus, though not complained of Ifit, to measure the power of agreed. Agreeing, the two leaders made the agreement, the text of which is rapped on the iron disk. This great event happened in the year 884 BC. It is a pity that such a good king Hercules subsequently thrown off a cliff.
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There is one more myth about the first Olympics. Year then went 1253-th BC. Alida, a small area in the Peloponnese, ruled the treacherous and deceitful AUGI. He owned a huge herd, but never removed from their animals. Hercules was instructed to clean up the stables from the tons of dirt there accumulated. He demanded a share of the herd, and AUGI agreed. Nobody believed that Hercules can handle it, but he could not. For this purpose he sent to the stables of the river by changing their bed. AUGI was pleased, but promised not given. Hero left with empty hands and a desire for revenge. After a time he returned to Elis and killed Augie. To celebrate, the Hercules made sacrifices to the gods, planted the olive grove and organized the competition in honor of the mighty Zeus. This was the first Olympics in Greece. There are other myths about this event, for example, that the Olympics was arranged by Hercules in honour of his father Zeus over Kronos swallow his sons.
The Venue of the Olympiad was assigned to Olympia. It is a territory of Elis, hundreds of kilometers away from mount Olympus. Here was located the legendary olive grove in the Altis to the altar of mighty Zeus. It was bordered by a wall and was considered sacred. Also, there has been the temple of Zeus, where for hundreds of years held the rituals. Later, to the fifty-second Olympiad, was founded a new Church. It provided for the training of the palestra, [gimnasii], house for guests and athletes, the prototypes of the Olympic village. Also there were installed statues to the winners. One of them was carved the date of 776 a year. So the scientists dug out in the nineteenth century, Olympia, established when was the first Olympics. Stadium events was at the foot of mount Kronos. On its slopes staged a grandstand, accommodating up to 45 thousand spectators. Made up this huge complex in a hundred years, somewhere around 460 BC. The new Church stood safely for 8 centuries, and in 406 was destroyed by Theodosius II, who hated all Gentiles. Nature completed the rout Olympia, ruined all that remained, two powerful earthquakes, and unprecedented flooding and then river flooding.
The Modern Olympic games differ significantly from those that were conducted more than 3,000 years ago. However, some rules still remain. The most important of them – the integrity of the competition. Now the athletes swore an oath of allegiance to the Olympic tradition. Before the vows was not, but if the athlete is caught cheating, he is ignominiously expelled, and the penalty money it had to pay, cast copper statue of Zeus. Before the competition they showed the participants as punishment. The second immutable rule – to hold the Olympics every four years. Then the Greeks introduced a special calendar, called an Olympic year. He was equal to four normal. And another important rule past and current Competitions – at the time of their conduct to cease hostilities. Unfortunately, when was the first Olympics, and now it does not stick. The rest of the first Olympics is very different from the present.
Now to compete the representatives of all countries and peoples. When was the first Olympics that the rules were not allowed to participate in competitions not to the Greeks, the poor and slaves, and women. Last even to attend the competition had no right. Otherwise, they could throw off a cliff.
The entire ancient history of the Olympics, only one Verenia were able to get there. She was the coach of his son to a fistfight. On games Perenia dressed in male costume. Her son won, and the woman in the tide of joy gave himself. It is not dropped from the cliff only because the people stood up. But since then all the coaches of athletes, the so-called hellanodikai had to strip to the waist. The athlete who wishes to participate in competitions, reported on this year. All this time he intensively trained, have passed the established standards, and if passed, another month has already trained with the special coach. Interestingly, the Olympic torch for the first Olympic games was not this “ancient” tradition invented in the twentieth century. In Hellas carried out a running with torches, but not in Olympia, but in Athens at various festivals.
The First Olympic games in Greece took place only one day and consisted of running on 192,14 meters, the so-called one stage, which equals 600 feet of Zeus. According to legend, the distance measured out by Heracles. 14 Olympics introduced races at 2 stage, with a 15-minutes - stamina. The distance included between 7 and 24 studies. From the 18th to the regulations become included wrestling and a pentathlon (pentathlon), consisting of wrestling, running, long jump, throwing of spear and disk. Athletes jump in length from place, holding stones. Landing, they were beaten back. It was believed this improved the result. A spear of metal at the target and the disc with the special exaltation. With the 23rd in the program appeared fisticuffs, and with the 25th - chariot race. 33rd Olympiad even more expanded program. Now athletes competed in races for horses, foals and donkeys and mutilated himself in the pankration (something like our fights without rules). All in all there were 293 of the Olympics. Thanks to Theodosius II forgot about them, but in 1896 by Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin revived the tradition.
The First Winter Olympics was held in France in 1924. Figure skating wanted to include in the program of the first renewed Olympic games even Pierre de Coubertin, but it was only in 1908. Figure skating consisted of 4 disciplines. In particular won our Russian Panin-Kolomenkin. Thus began the story of the first Winter Olympics. The IOC suggested in the program of Olympic games to include a week of winter sports. But the Swedes, who took 5th Olympics, refused, because they have passed such competitions. They justified the refusal by saying that in ancient Greece the winter competition was not. 6th Olympiad came in 1916 and did not take place. On the 7th IOC included in the program of figure skating and hockey. Came 1924. The Olympiad was hosted by the French, who had not objected to winter sports. The competition led to a crazy interest, and the IOC finally approved the law on Winter Olympics and the last competition was given the status of "first Winter Olympics".
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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