Structuring of living organisms into discrete classes enabled to form an idea of the different groups of individuals inhabiting the planet. Of course, there are a lot of contradictions even in modern theories of evolutionary origin of species, but the basic classifications are based, which helps to organize living forms. Interestingly, the concept of species introduced into a science Carl Linnaeus in 1753, however, the number of described representatives of the different groups of the animal world has increased significantly. And that's not to mention the constant development of approaches to the formation of a taxonomy and standardization of plants and animals.
Under the guise refers to the set of individuals who have inherited a set of common features defined by morphological, physiological, biological and other characteristics. In fact, this set of features and allows to distinguish living organisms in a certain population. The classical notion of species in biology also provides that its representatives in the process of life occupy the same habitat. At the same time, the species is one of the main forms, which are organized in living organisms.
But this does not mean that any specialist can easily determine the identity of a particular individual to a specific type. To do this, and provides a number of criteria by which individuals are recorded in different categories of species taxonomy. In turn, the population is the set of individuals belonging to the same species. This affiliation also determines the overall gene pool, the ability to sustainable reproduction and isolation from other species.
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It has been noted that the main criteria submitted by the special groups of symptoms. Basic among them is the morphological criterion, which is based on the external differences between species. This set of features allows you to make the separation of organisms with explicit especially in terms of external or internal morphological characteristics. But it is not necessary to exclude probability of presence difficult to define the characteristics that are detectable only in the process of long-term observations.
The criterion of geography also complements the concept. Criteria of this type are based on the fact that the representatives of each group take their special space with common properties. This is the habitat which will be reviewed separately.
Another important criterion is physiological and biochemical feature set. In terms of reliability this is the right criterion because it is based on the segregation of types at the precise biochemical processes that occur equally have similar categories of living organisms.
The Area is a space defined geographical boundaries, which applies a particular kind. Based on the characteristics of the biosphere in the area, it is possible to draw conclusions about the sizes and shapes that distinguish the inhabitant of this space. In fact, the area can be used as a criterion for determining the membership of individuals to a specific type, but it is important to take into account some of the nuances.
First, it is clear that in one area can be inhabited by representatives of different types. Secondly, the concept of species assumes that the geographical criterion may fail if we are talking about the so-called cosmopolitans. These are species that can theoretically spread across the planet, regardless of the terrain conditions, climatic characteristics etc. are Also scholars bystrorazvivajushchiesja group of individuals of different species that can change the habitat in such a way that the professionals do not have time to determine its characteristics. Such species include house flies and sparrows.
In the ecology of species and populations considered in the overall context of the interaction of individuals with other groups. The main parameters to study the types of ecology is that population size, food type, habitat, timing of reproduction, etc. These and other indicators allow experts to classify the population in certain ecological niches. Directly ethological criterion is reduced to the identification of behavioral differences among members of different species. Also the concept of species in ecology is defined by a complex of biological and abiotic conditions in which a population was formed and adapted to life.
The Formation of new species occurs in a variety of ways, which are allocated in two main groups. As a rule, speciation occurs as a result of the so-called methodology in phyletic evolution. In accordance with this concept the processes of development within a population eventually lead to the organism's adaptation to a particular environment increases, and therefore there are significant changes in the characteristics of the group.
The Second form of speciation is based on splitting the group into two categories. As noted above, the concept of species involves the use of multiple characteristics to categorize individuals with the purpose of their inclusion in specific populations. The greatest difficulty in these classifications is a manifestation of the causes of speciation by splitting.
There are two approaches to the definition of speciation as a result of splitting groups. It is allopatric and sympatric speciation. The former implies the process of expanding the habitat of the original species in terms of long-stay populations on the background of geographical isolation. An important condition for the formation of the characteristics of species sufficient for selection of isolated individuals in a separate group, is separated from the initial primary representatives of the population. Natural geographic separation can occur when the barrier mountain ranges, sea Straits, etc.
To define sympatric forms of education of new groups it should be noted that the concept of species provides important food specialization of individuals. It was split on this basis and determines the principles of formation of new species within the original group.
Still, the current taxonomy of living species is far from perfect. The fact that even high-tech tools and techniques to identify features of different individuals is not always possible with sufficient accuracy to define them as members of a particular species of the category.
Changing the notion of species, supplemented with new aspects of biological, geographical and ecological properties. Of course, a special place still occupy the physiological characteristics of living organisms that form the base set of signs for the formation of a taxonomy. Difficulties in classification usually arise when new forms of facing the intermediate links between the different types....
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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