Many people interested in the issue of arming the army, amounted to a largely erroneous view that the cannon artillery in the existing conditions it became virtually unused. And indeed, it would seem, for what it is, when on the battlefield reigns missile weapons? Take your time, it is not so simple.
The fact that cannon artillery is much cheaper to manufacture and operate. In addition, when using shells with optical-laser guided (“Kitolov-2”), it is able (at the usual distance, of course) to show no less impressive than missiles, the results on the battlefield. Don't forget about the possibility of using small nuclear charges. In the midst of a major war it could be extremely useful.
And so today we will discuss SAU “Hyacinth" - one of the most impressive systems of this class.
During the Second world war self-propelled artillery guns have established themselves as a powerful and dangerous weapon, which often can decide the outcome of the battle in favor of one side or another of the conflict. Their price was significantly lower than that in the tanks, but in certain conditions, cheap and not too well armored vehicles can effectively destroy enemy heavy armored vehicles. For our country it was especially important at the initial stage of the war, when military equipment lacked, and its production was required to simplify and reduce the cost.
Almost all of the motorized rifle division of the Soviet Union in the postwar period were equipped with tanks and artillery on a mixed basis. Each infantry regiment was the quality of artillery weapons, which represented the full battery of SU-76s. Significantly increased the proportion of other artillery weapons that were created during the war.
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All ACS adopted at that period, was intended solely to support the attacking infantry in combat. However, in the postwar period the military doctrine increasingly prescribe the use of self-propelled units together or instead of tanks.
In the 50-60-ies of the role of the ACS is constantly falling. Often there was a question on the full termination of their manufacture and the replacement of this type of armament. So, by the mid 60-ies was developed very few new models of self-propelled guns. Almost all of them were based on old tank chassis of world war II, Osamas new armored corps.
In the late 50-ies of the last century, Nikita Khrushchev, an ardent fan of the missile, sanctioned the almost complete stop of development of conventional weapons in the USSR. Because of this, we have lagged behind its potential enemies than a dozen years. History has repeatedly punished the Soviet Union for this miscalculation: in the 60-ies it was found that the value of barreled artillery remained at the same level. Especially clearly confirmed episode in China, after which the Secretary General has revised his views on this issue.
Then the Kuomintang had placed a battery of long-range American howitzers and quietly began to bombard the territory of mainland China. The Chinese and our military advisers were in a very awkward position. They had guns M-46 130mm, but their shells did not reach the enemy's batteries, even with a fair wind. One of the Soviet advisers proposed an original solution: to reach the goal, we had to just how to warm up the shells!
Both sides were surprised, but the reception was successful. This case was the impetus for the development in 1968, SAU “Hyacinth". Its creation was mandated Perm specialists.
As the work was required to finish as fast as possible, the development went in two directions. Experts have been working in the field of creation of self-propelled and towed artillery pieces (indexes “With” and “B”, respectively). The main Directorate of artillery immediately assigned these machines indicate 2А36 and 2А37. Their important feature was not only unique ballistics, but the special ammo that was made specifically for ACS "Hyacinth". 152 mm – a fairly common caliber, but few people know that the Soviet Army had no other ammunition of similar caliber, which could be used by these self-propelled units.
In Perm was created directly artillery in Yekaterinburg engineered chassis, and the Institute of THEM the best specialists thought about the creation of the most suitable for such a system ammunition. Already in 1969, the Commission has proposed two options for new SAU: the chopping and tower. Approved was the second option. In 1970, the government initiated full-scale work on the ACS "Hyacinth". In early 1971, on “the public” was presented for the first guns of 152 mm calibre, but because of the unwillingness of shells the fire moved.
The crew of the "Hyacinth" consists of five people. On the highway the vehicle can travel at speeds up to 60 km/h, power reserve is about 500 kilometers. The casing is made of armor plates (aluminium alloys) with a thickness of 30 mm by welding. This armor does not provide any adequate crew protection from even large-caliber machine guns, and therefore when performing combat tasks especially need to think carefully about the location of the machine on the ground.
In addition, the disadvantage of installation "Hyacinth" is its relatively low rate of fire – up to five rounds per minute. Note that the supply of shells is done manually, and therefore during intense combat, the calculation may simply be tired, further reducing the efficiency of such loading. And yet, considering the characteristics of domestic winters, it is not surprising cool against the military to open the gun, not covered by the tower. Even in the Chechen “cold” period, there have been cases of frostbite calculations “Tender”.
The Excuse of the developers can be perhaps the fact that initially, this ACS was planned at the time of «cold» war. Simply put, it was designed specifically for warfare in Western Europe where the winter are rarely seen temperatures below 7-8 degrees Celsius. Though it is worth remembering that the BMP-1 designed for those conditions, not the best way to Express themselves in Afghanistan (though for other reasons).
The Engine-transmission compartment is located in front of the body. The power plant includes a V-shaped engine V-59, V-shaped with a capacity of 520 HP the Feature that it is arranged in one unit with dual stream transmission. Compartment for the gun commander is to the right of the engine. Immediately in front of the commander's cupola is the working place of the driver. Directly the fighting compartment is located in the Central part of the body. The shells are in an upright pilings.
Used in the car chassis is actually the same that was used when creating ACS “locust”. As mobile setting refers to the open type, the instrument is mounted is open. This feature allowed us to make the car a bit shorter. As artillery "Hyacinth" is relatively small (relative to peers), it is convenient to transport by air.
It was Initially supposed to equip a new car and even with PKT, but this option was not adopted. Later it introduced in the draft again. By 1972 was finally ready projects of both types of "Hyacinth" of the weapon separately-making method of loading. Note that at the same time, we developed a variant with bag charges. However, this option did not progress beyond sketches. In a series of ACS "Hyacinth" went in 1976, and immediately began the saturation of troops with new equipment.
Combat “run” new technology was in Afghanistan, and the military immediately gave this self-propelled installation of a lot of flattering features. They were particularly impressed by the powerful projectile that could be used with success for the destruction of the powerful fortifications of the Taliban. In some places self-propelled 152-mm gun "Hyacinth" nicknamed “Genocide”, which alludes to its martial power.
The design of the gun 2А37 fairly standard: pipe-monoblock breech and muzzle brake, without which at such an impressive caliber do not succeed. Incidentally, he refers to delovomu type. Shutter-schelochkova type with horizontal alignment. The gun is equipped with a brake blanking rollback hydraulic type and nachalnikom (pneumatic), a feature of which is that its cylinders are rolled back together with the barrel. Least rollback-730 mm, the biggest – 950 mm.
The Rammer chain type works in two steps: first, sending into the breech of the projectile, and only after it is the turn of the casings. MA...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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