St. Peter's Square in Rome is rightfully the most famous and popular among Christians and tourists. In Italian her name will sound as Piazza San Pietro. Historical complex built in honour of the steward of Paradise to St. Peter, so the view of the ensemble from a great height similar to the keyhole.
The Ideologist and Creator of this great complex was a famous Italian aesthete and sculptor Giovanni Bernini. Born in December of 1598 in Naples, the family of an architect. From father Giovanni inherited the talent of creation in the Baroque style.
At the age of 7 Bernini started making the first sketches. At the time, the Giovanni family moved to Rome, where one of the main venerated saints was that of Peter. A year later the young artist made a portrait of the Martyr, after which the boy immediately dubbed the second Michelangelo. In 1614 Bernini created his first sculpture dedicated to Saint Lawrence. Plaster bust was so struck by the cardinal Borghese, he decided to take the boy to his Villa and make it personal artist.
Soon Giovanni was knighted and became one of the best friends of Pope urban VIII. There is even a view that Bernini was the principal adviser to the cardinal Barberini. Under such influential patronage of young architects the opportunity to freely exercise their new big ideas. It was during this period he decided to make St. Peter's square at the Vatican in the Baroque style.
In the middle of 1620 years, Giovanni happened to the family drama. For a long time he was in a relationship with the lovely Constance. Spiritual idyll of two hearts broke girls cheating with his younger brother. Unable to bear the betrayal, Bernini beat Luigi to death, and then gave the order to disfigure the face of Constance beyond recognition. However, these crimes are easy to get away with the sculptor, as it has stood Pope urban VIII.
All of this has shaken the psyche of Bernini, however, there came to the aid of the Church. The architect was commissioned to reconstruct St. Peter's square. Bernini wanted to escape from the mental anguish, and therefore happily agreed. In the summer of 1641 was laid the first stone in the construction of the new square.
Today, in honor of Giovanni named a crater on mercury, and the image of his face emblazoned on the 50-thousand Italian lire banknote.
In 1663 the Church complex in the Vatican was completely finished. Led the construction of Bernini was beside himself with joy and pride for your project. Today St. Peter's square in Rome is considered the main architectural ensemble of Italy and perhaps all of Europe. The Complex consists of two parts: the oval and trapezoidal. Both squares are on the same axis with the Cathedral of St. Peter. During the building of Bernini took advantage of the so-called monumental saturation. So, the main St. Peter's square surrounded by high pillars, standing in 4 rows. The ancient architects loved elliptical shape, as they create a sense of movement and instability. A similar technique Baroque used in their projects, and Giovanni.
The Center of the square decorated with the Grand Egyptian obelisk and two unique by building fountains. The ensemble of Bernini helped to establish in randomly built up metropolis Grand monumental background for Church processions and other solemn actions.
One of the attractions of the complex is the Scala Reggia, which was also created by Giovanni. It is a Royal staircase leading to the Vatican Palace from St. Peter's Basilica. When designing Rock Bernini used the technique of illusory perspectives, so the person feels like being in a theater. The square of St. Peter's impromptu divided 8 lanes. With this reception in the middle of the complex formed a distinct centre in the form of the sun.
Today, the square in front of St. Peter's first notable located at the center of a 37-metre Egyptian obelisk, however, was not always so. Legend has it that in 1586 by order of Pope architect was necessary in that whatever was to raise the obelisk on a meter pedestal. Dozens of men could hardly pull the stele to give it a vertical position. Suddenly the rope began one after another to break, and the obelisk all the more rejected. The main architect of the Fountain was scared, he didn't know how to fix the situation. Then came to the aid of the legendary captain Bresca. He ran to work and began to pour the ropes with water, and his example was followed by other people. Soon the ropes were wet, gained firmness and elasticity. In the end, the incident was over, and by the end of the day the obelisk was set on its rightful pedestal.
Today, in honor of captain Breaks in San Remo calledone of the squares.
This architectural Catholic complex is considered the most important building of the Vatican. The area of St. Peter's Cathedral is also a major ceremonial place of the whole Roman Church. To put in the hands of such iconic architects and artists like Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael and, of course, by Bernini. St. Peter's Cathedral is the largest Catholic Church in the world. Its capacity is 60 thousand people. In ancient times at the construction site was located ornamental gardens of Nero. The first version of the Cathedral was erected in the year 326, during the reign of Emperor Constantine. Until the 15th century, it never was reconstructed, therefore, the structure gradually collapsed. And only under Julius II, from the ancient Basilica was built a strong Palace, given to the Catholic Church for service. Over the next century, to the Cathedral made hand such legendary figures as Donato Bramante, Raphael, Peruzzi, Sangallo, Michelangelo, della Porta, Vignola, Maderno and finally, Bernini.
Its Height is 48 m and a width of almost 120 m. the attic of the facade is decorated with a Grand 6-meter-high statues of Christ, the eleven apostles and John the Baptist. The Only witness and reminder of the ancient Basilica are the doors of the main portal of the Cathedral that have survived since the 15th century. Only the Church has the solemn 5 inputs. Before the main is the famous mosaic by Giotto, entitled “Navicella” at the end of the 8th century.
In the left part of the facade of the portal are ‘Gates of death”. Their author was Giacomo Manzu. Work on the project has lasted 15 years, until 1964.
Inside the building also affects the sight by its immense size and rich decoration. Central dryer stretched to 212 m At the end of the Basilica is the famous miraculous statue of St. Peter. The main dome is standing on large columns to a height of 120 m and has a diameter of about 42 m. Above the altar is a huge kivoriy, the width of which is 29 m. it was Set on 4 decorative columns, on which stand majestically the statues of the archangels. For kivoriy is the chair of St. Peter, designed by Bernini. The left and right of the altar is decorated with unique works of della Porta, Michelangelo, Cavallini, and of Giovanni.
Any tour of Italy should begin with this architecture. On St. Peter's square you can easily get by metro or even on foot. As numerous reviews of eyewitnesses, the first thing that strikes the eye is the powerful columns on both sides of the complex. Does not remain without attention and the main attraction - the Obelisk, next to which always a lot of tourists.
The Entrance to St. Peter's square is absolutely free, as in the Cathedral itself. Optionally for 7 Euro to take the Elevator to the bell tower, which offers stunning views of the beauty of Rome. In the Church you can not just sit on a bench and admire the interior, but also quietly pray.Despite all this, the main advantage is that are allowed to take photos of St. Peter's square. Every minute on site someone makes a selfie next to the majestic sculptures and architectural structures. Also near the area there are shops, restaurants and souvenir shops.
The Area of St. Peter's Cathedral is among the three most popular Church ensembles of the planet.
In 2007, the archivists of the Vatican found the last work of Michelangelo, which shows sketches of one of the columns of the complex.
The altar of the Cathedral from the beginning was directed not to the East, as is customary in Christianity, and the West.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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