12V power supply with your hands. Homemade power supply: scheme


2018-03-18 22:50:34




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To Make a 12V power supply with your own hands is not difficult, but to do this you need to study a bit of theory. In particular, any of the nodes is the unit responsible for each element of the product, the basic parameters of each. It is also important to know which transformers you want to use. If there is no suitable, you can rewind the secondary winding independently to obtain the desired voltage output. It is useful to know about the methods of etching printed circuit boards and the manufacture of the body of the power supply.

Components of the power unit

12V power supply with your own hands

The Main element in every block of the power – this is a step-down transformer. With its help, there is a decrease in voltage (220 Volts) to 12 V. In the designs, discussed below, can be used as a homemade transformer with a rewound secondary winding, and the finished product, without upgrading. You only need to consider all the features and carry out the correct calculation section of the wire and number of turns.

The Second item in importance – it is the rectifier. It is made of one, two or four semiconductor diodes. It all depends on the type of scheme, which going to homemade power supply. For example, to implement double-voltage you need to use two of the semiconductor. For straightening without an increase in one is enough, but better to use a bridge circuit (all the current ripples are smoothed out). After the obligatory rectifier electrolytic capacitor. Preferred installation of the Zener diode with suitable parameters, it allows the output to make a stable voltage.


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What is a transformer

Transformers are used for the rectifiers, have the following components:

  1. Core (magnetic core made of metal or a ferromagnet).
  2. Network obrotu (primary). Is powered by 220 Volts.
  3. Secondary winding (lower). Connection of the rectifier.

power supply 12V 5A

Now all the elements in more detail. The core can have any shape, but most common are W-shaped and U-shaped. Less common are toroidal, but they have different specificity, are often used in the inverter (voltage converters, for example, from 12 to 220 Volts) than the normal rectifying devices. Power supply 12V 2A is advisable to make use of the transformer with h-shaped or U-shaped core.

The Winding can be placed on each other (first primary and then secondary), in one frame, and two coils. As example, a transformer with a U-shaped core, on which are two coils. Each of them produced by winding half of the primary and secondary windings. When connecting a transformer is required to connect pins sequentially.

How to calculate transformer

Let's Say you decide to wind the secondary winding of the transformer alone. For this you will need to know the value of the main parameter-voltage, which can be removed with one loop. This is the simplest method that can be used in the manufacture of the transformer. It is much harder to calculate all the parameters, if required winding not only secondary but also primary winding. You need to know for this section of the magnetic core, and its permeability properties. If you count power supply 12V 5A by yourself, this option is more precise than ready to adjust settings.

power supply 12V 2A

The Primary winding wound harder than the secondary, because it can be several thousand turns of thin wire. You can simplify the task and a homemade power supply to produce using a special machine.

To calculate the secondary winding you need to wind 10 turns of the wire, which plan to use. Assemble the transformer, and observing safety precautions, connect the primary winding to the network. Guide measure the voltage at the terminals of the secondary winding, the resulting value divide by 10. Now number 12 divide by the resulting value. And get the number of turns needed to generate 12 Volts. You can add a little to compensate for the voltage drop (increase 10%).

Diodes for the power supply

The Choice of semiconductor diodes used in the rectifier of the power supply, depends on which parameter values of the transformer to get. The more amperage on the secondary side, the more powerful the diodes you want to use. Preference is given to those parts that are fabricated based on silicon. But do not take high-frequency as they are not intended for use in rectifier devices. Their main purpose – detection of high-frequency signal in the radio receiving and transmitting devices.

self-made power supply

The Ideal solution for low power power supplies – application of diode assemblies, power supply 12V 5A with their help it is possible to place in a much smaller enclosure. Diode assemblies is a set of four semiconductor diodes. They are used solely for the rectification of alternating current. Working with them is much more convenient, no need to make a lot of connections, enough for two output apply voltage from the secondary winding of the transformer, and to remove remaining constant.

Voltage regulation

After the manufacture of the transformer perform the measurement of the voltage at the terminals of its secondary winding. If it exceeds the value of 12 Volts, it is necessary to conduct stabilization. Even a simple 12V power supply it will work without this. Note that in the supply network voltage is unstable. Connect a voltmeter to the socket and perform measurements at different times. For example, during the day it could jump to 240 Volts, and in the evening descend even to 180. It all depends on the load on the power line.

self-made switching power supply

If you are in the primary winding of the transformer changes the voltage, it will be unstable and in the secondary. To compensate for this, you need to use devices called voltage regulators. In our case, we can use a Zener with a suitable value of the parameters (current and voltage). Zener diode a lot, pick up necessary items before you do the 12V power supply.

There are more “advanced” elements (such КР142ЕН12), which represent a set of several Zener diodes, and passive elements. Their characteristics much better. Also, there are foreign analogues of such devices. You should be familiar with these elements before 12V power supply you decide.

Features of pulse power supply units

Power supply Units of this type have found wide application in personal computers. They have two output voltages: 12 Volts - to power the drives drives 5 Volts for operation of microprocessors and other devices. Unlike a simple power supply is that the output signal is not constant, but pulse – shaped like rectangles. In the first period of time a signal appears in the second it is equal to zero.

uninterruptible power supply 12V

There are Also differences in the circuitry of the device. For the normal functioning of the homemade switching power supply is in need of the rectification of the mains voltage without a prior reduction of its value (there is no output transformer). To use switching power supplies is possible as a standalone device, and their modernized counterparts – the battery. In the end you can get a simple UPS, and its capacity will depend on parameters of the power supply and the type of batteries used.

How to get uninterrupted power supply?

The power supply is sufficient to connect in parallel the battery that when you turn off the electricity all the devices continued to operate normally. When it's connected to the power supply charges the battery, the principle is similar to the operation of the vehicle power. And when an uninterrupted 12V power supply is disconnected from the network, the supply voltage for all equipment from battery power.

simple power supply 12V

But there are times when you want the output to mains voltage of 220 Volts, for example, to power personal computers. In this case, you need an implementation circuit of the inverter-device that converts the DC 12 Volts to AC 220. The scheme is more complex than a simple power supply, but to collect it.

Filtering and clipping of the variable component

An Important place in the rectifier technology is filters. Look at the 12V power supply, which is the most common. It consists of a diode bridge, capacitor, resistance. Filters cut off all the extra harmonics, while the output of the supply DC voltage. For example, the simplest filter – electrolytic capacitor with large capacity. If you look at his work with DC and AC voltage...

Article in other languages:

BE: https://www.tostpost.com/be/hatn-tul-nasc/1903-blok-harchavannya-12v-sva-m-rukam-samarobny-blok-harchavannya-shema.html

DE: https://www.tostpost.com/de/gem-tlichkeit/1900-netzteil-12v-mit-ihren-h-nden-selbstgemachte-netzteil-schema.html

ES: https://www.tostpost.com/es/la-comodidad-del-hogar/1905-la-fuente-de-alimentaci-n-de-12v-con-sus-propias-manos-improvisado-fue.html

KK: https://www.tostpost.com/kk/domashniy-uyut/1903-orektend-ru-blogy-12v-z-oldarymen-oldan-zhasal-an-blok-pitaniya-shemas.html

PL: https://www.tostpost.com/pl/komfort-domu/1906-zasilacz-12v-w-asnymi-r-kami-prowizoryczny-zasilacz-schemat.html

PT: https://www.tostpost.com/pt/o-aconchego-do-lar/1903-fonte-de-alimenta-o-de-12v-com-suas-pr-prias-m-os-caseiro-fonte-de-ali.html

TR: https://www.tostpost.com/tr/domashniy-uyut/1909-g-kayna-12v-kendi-elleriyle-ev-yap-m-g-kayna-devre.html

UK: https://www.tostpost.com/uk/domashn-y-zatishok/1905-blok-zhivlennya-12v-svo-mi-rukami-samorobniy-blok-zhivlennya-shema.html

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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