Osteomyelitis of the jaw – is an infectious disease of the bone. The lower jaw is affected more often than the top, twice. Depending on the causes of osteomyelitis are: odontogenic, traumatic, hematogenous.
Traumatic osteomyelitis of the jaw occurs when getting an infection in the tissue of bone fractures or gunshot wounds.
Hematogenous osteomyelitis of the jaw develops when the transmission of blood from the lesion in the bone. This can occur in chronic tonsillitis, and acute conditions such as scarlet fever, diphtheria. This type of disease is a very rare phenomenon. Hematogenous osteomyelitis, the symptoms of which are varied, can be difficult to diagnose in its initial stages.
The Most common odontogenic species, constituting half of all osteomyelitis of the jaw. The illness develops when microbes from the patient's tooth in the bone and brain matter. The pathogen may be Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, anaerobic bacteria. This usually occurs during exacerbation of periodontitis, cyst, granuloma, dental treatment. There are acute, subacute and chronic odontogenic osteomyelitis.
The Acute form is characterized by weakness, malaise, headaches. The temperature increases and poor sleep. The condition of the patient may be light, medium and heavy. In the beginning man complains of pain in the tooth. There is swelling, poor mobility of the mandible, redness and soreness of the mucous membrane around the tooth, sharp pain when tapped. Lymph nodes in the neck enlarged and painful when palpation. May develop abscess. The patient looks dull, the skin have a grayish tint, blood pressure may be low or high, it is possible to yellowness of the eye sclera. Early in the disease diagnosis is difficult due to the prevalence of common symptoms.
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Subacute osteomyelitis of the jaw develops after the release of pus from the inflamed area of bone when a patient comes some relief. At this stage the necrotic areas of bone and fistula. Inflammation weakens but does not disappear. Bone tissue continues to disintegrate.
Chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible occurs within a few months. The periods of exacerbation, during which the formation of new fistulae and necrotic areas of tissue — sequesters, followed by periods of apparent recovery. Rarely it may be-healing.
For the diagnosis of osteomyelitis is carried out x-ray examination, take a blood test, guided by data and inspection history.
Treatment of osteomyelitis involves the removal of the tooth, which is an inflammation. Are incisions of the periosteum to ensure the release of inflammatory fluid. Prescribe antibiotics and local lavage of bone with antiseptic solutions. In severe cases, spend surgical operation to remove the dead sections of bone and plastic surgery of the jaw.
The Refusal of treatment of osteomyelitis can result in severe complications, such as abscess, cellulitis, pathological fracture of the jaw, limited mobility of the mandible, infection of the blood.
To avoid osteomyelitis of the mandible, it is necessary to constantly monitor the mouth to regularly visit the dentist for readjustment. It is necessary to treat all the patients teeth and leave cavities untreated. It is necessary to practice oral hygiene and try to avoid injuries of the jaw and face. Prevention of osteomyelitis lies in timely treatment of various infections, especially of the upper respiratory tract.
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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