Rabies is one of the most dangerous diseases. It is called virus, which proceeds to man from the bite of an infected animal. The disease affects the nervous system and is characterized by a fatal outcome. To prevent diseases it is necessary to make vaccination: an injection against rabies.
The nature of the rabies virus belongs to the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae microviruses. To detect the causative agent in saliva, secretions and tears. The virus is destroyed at a temperature of 56°C for 15 minutes, and at 100° for 2 minutes, he can't stand sun and UV rays, ethanol and disinfectants. At the same time, the causative agent of rabies is extremely resistant to low temperature, antibiotics and phenol. The disease can be transmitted to humans wild and domestic animals. Especially dangerous are foxes and stray dogs in spring and summer. Animal contagious 3-10 days before the onset of symptoms and during the whole time of the disease. Characteristic signs of a sick animal can be drooling and watery eyes, hydrophobia. People can become infected by the bite or saliva contamination of a large animal on broken skin and mucous shell. There are also known cases of infection by airborne droplets, through the water and the placenta. If you have not made timely injection of rabies, the virus begins to intensify.
When the virus enters the body, it quickly spreads along the nerve endings and in a short time affects the nervous system causing swelling, bleeding and severe changes in the nerve cells of the brain. The incubation period can last from 30 to 50 days, and in some cases 10-90 days to a year.
The Disease occurs in three stages. The first stage is characterized by General malaise, muscle aches, slight fever, feeling of burning and pain at the site of the bite, depression, insomnia, hallucinations. Stage II occurs within one to three days – begins agitation, hydrophobia, noisy breathing, convulsions, aggression, sweat and salivation. After two or three days the disease enters the end stage, when comes the calm, gets rabies. Temporary relief ends up raising the temperature to 42 degrees, then paralysis, convulsions, cardiac arrest and death. The whole illness lasts about 7 days.
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Treatment of disease and immunization
The Disease is virtually incurable. At the same time, it can be prevented. In this case, you need to have an injection against rabies no later than two weeks after the bite of an animal. When it is introduced specific immunoglobulin or an active immunization - vaccination against rabies.
Usually adhere to this scheme: the injection of rabies do on the first, third, fourteenth and twenty-eighth days after the bite. It is also recommended to do one more injection ninety days after the first vaccination.
Injection is best done in the thigh or the deltoid muscle of the shoulder. In the case that man was bitten, but before that he was vaccinated, his body is enough antibodies and vaccinated without immunoglobulin.
Persons often communicate with animals, such as veterinarians, hunters, need to do preventive vaccination, with a booster after one year and subsequently every five years.
How to behave if the person were bitten by an animal
After the bite must be abundantly wash the bite with soap and water. Then you should go to the doctor, saying all available information about the biting animal and circumstances of the bite. If the doctor can verify the absence of rabies in the animal, it is necessary to take a course of vaccinations that he would appoint.
When a serious condition is bitten, he may need inpatient treatment, especially for persons having diseases of the nervous system, allergies, pregnant women and those who have passed vaccination against other diseases in the past 2 months. During the vaccination and subsequently another six months should avoid alcohol and not to overwork, hypothermia and overheating.
If, after the introduction of the vaccine worsens the condition and any adverse effects of rabies vaccination, you should consult medical personnel and vaccinations to suspend. The decision to continue the vaccination is taken by the physician after the conclusion of a neurologist, robiology and therapist.
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
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