Who doesn't love juicy and sweet fruits? They are a favorite delicacy not only children but also adults. Being a storehouse of vitamins and important trace elements, these parts of the plant are often the most valuable. How are they formed? Which fruit will be seeded? Why tomato-a berry? These and other interesting questions you will find answers in our article.
The Fruit is a modified flower and outcome of his life. The main purpose – education and dissemination of seeds. Outside their protects the pericarp. It can be juicy or dry. But in any case consists of three layers: outer, middle and inner. Sometimes some of them are fused together.
Generally, all the species of the same plant are the fruit of the same type. But there are exceptions to this rule. For example, hygrophila polyspermous depending on species, may form either a capsule or a drupe.
The Fruit is very diverse. The basis of their classification is based on two criteria: the number of seeds and type of the pericarp. What types of fruits? The table will help us to deal with this issue.
|Number of seeds||The structure of the pericarp|
|One-Seeded fruit||Multi-Seeded fruits||Juicy||Dry|
|Drupe (plum)||Berry (gooseberry)||Apple (quince)||Pod (sprouts)|
|Caryopsis (corn)||Bob (pea)||Mnogochastny (raspberry)||Willie (shepherd's purse)|
|Achene (sunflower)||Box (Belen)||Zemlyanitsyna (strawberry)||Lionfish (ash)|
Dry fruits in some plants can unfold independently (leaflet from Larkspur), and others – are not capable of it (achene sunflower). These plants are differently adapted to seed dispersal. For example, winged walnut birch is easily transferred by wind due to the presence of special outgrowths of the pericarp.
If the fruit has a single seed, as a rule, it is well protected from adverse environmental effects.
The Seed of cherries covered with bone. Often it is not so easy to crack, so it is durable. Remember how to look like a peach pit and plums. It is a real protection for the embryo plant. The juicy pulp of the drupe – the power of the future body. In addition, during the decay processes a large amount of heat, providing conditions for the development of the embryo.
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All members of the grass family type of fruit called a caryopsis. At first glance, it does not have pericarp layers. In fact, its layers of tightly fused with each other and with the seed rind. Due to this structure, the fruit is often given a different name. The caryopsis is called the seed. But in the achene fused between the layers of the pericarp can be cleaned. Who doesn't love flavored roasted sunflower seeds? This is possible due to the fact that the pericarp not fused with the seed skin, in contrast to the weevil. This type of fruit typical of asters and marigolds.
This type is represented in the nature widely. After all, due to the large number of seeds, the chances of the plants on the distribution and germination significantly increased. However, their sizes are much smaller. Multi-seeded dry fruits are often drop-down. So, hygrophila polyspermous has a box that cracks two doors.
Juicy seeded fruits give representatives of many families of plants of economic importance.
Potatoes, peppers, physalis, tomato-Solanaceae. They form a type of fruit like berries. Its pericarp is represented leathery outer layer and a juicy middle and inner. Inside are many small seeds. Not all berries are edible. From Datura and henbane poisonous, and potatoes-inedible. However, most fruit crops are widely grown and used by man. It's cranberry, black and red currants, gooseberries, blueberries and many others.
Which fruit will be seeded, consider the example of the following type. Melon, squash, pumpkin, Luffa, cucumber – representatives of the Cucurbitaceae family, which got its name thanks to the same type of fruit. It is thick, bright orange, with a characteristic pattern of the outer layer. The inner layer is a juicy, contains a large amount of water, which dissolved very useful substances.
The pumpkin, for example, a lot of vitamin A, so necessary for the development of normal human vision. This type of fruit is watermelon, which is often erroneously called the biggest berry.
The strawberry Fruit and strawberries have a characteristic structure: the succulent receptacle is shipped dry nuts. This type is called zemlyanichnoe. The fruits of these plants contain large amounts of vitamin C that helps support the immune system.
The structure of the fruit of this type consider the example of the linen plant. Leathery outer layer and a juicy innermembranous chamber in which the seeds are –here is a typical his features. The same type of fruit are quince and pear. And Rowan, we call them "apples" because of the small size.
This strong and delicious, the pericarp protects the seeds from temperature extremes and lack of moisture. And thanks to the valuable flavoring qualities of fruits of this type are subject to many animals.
This type illustrates what kind of fruit will be seeded. To understand its structure, let's remember what is a drupe. The fruit inside has a stiff inner layer of the pericarp. All members of the family Rosaceae form them. It's a plum, cherry, plum, peach, cherry, and many others. Often a drupe is a collection of small fruits. A typical example is the raspberry, which is often called berry.
Turn to the dry fruit. Most of them are drop-down. Thus, the box can have multiple nests. When ripe the fruit opens, and the seeds are on the outside. They are usually quite small and light, so often carried by the wind. Most of the plants having the box grow in the soil. But hygrophila polyspermous prefers water or moisture.
Reveals a different box. Poisonous henbane opens the lid, fragrant violet – crackles and noble carnation-forms the teeth.
From the name of this type of fruit also the name of a family – legumes. This fruit is revealed on both sides. While the seeds during this process remain on the leaves. Acacia, alfalfa, soybeans, peanuts, clover, peas and beans-known to all representatives of legumes.
This type of fruit very similar to a Bob. But this is only on the outside. If you open the pod, the seeds will remain on the wings and on the vertical partition in the middle of the fruit. This is the main difference. Pod characteristic of the mustard, cabbage, horseradish, radish. Which fruit will be seeded? For example, the one called Willie. Isn't that similar names? Indeed, it is a kind of pod, from which it differs only in size. Examples of plants with this type of fruit are shepherd's purse and Lunaria.
It is also multi-seeded dry fruit. Its owners are the Larkspur and Aconite. In General its structure is similar to Bob. But the leaflet only reveals one side.
Many plants have small, inconspicuous flowers. Alone, they would not be noticeable insects. Therefore, in nature there is a certain fixture: small flowers are collected in inflorescence. Cases are known when the fruits are in such formations are fused together. This phenomenon can be seen in pineapple, Fig or mulberry. They have stems.
Small and light fruits are easily spread by wind, juicy and delicious – animals and birds. Such bodies of plants always have a bright outer layer of the pericarp. He initially attracts animals. In aquatic plants the seeds carries over to many kilometers from the site of flowering. Many fruits constitute a special outgrowths on their surface, which also contribute to their spread. A striking example is the feather. The fruit has a sharp rod and a characteristic clinging hairs.
The Flower and fruit are essential adaptations of flowering plants, through which they were able to occupy a dominant position in the system of the plant world on Earth.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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