The Years of the Soviet Union – 1922-1991. However, the history of the world's largest state began with the February revolution, and more specifically, from the crisis of tsarist Russia. From the beginning of XX century, the country wandered opposition sentiment, which resulted in bloodshed.
Words by Pushkin in the thirties of the XIX century, was applicable in the past, do not lose relevance today. Russian riot always merciless. Especially when it leads to the overthrow of the old regime. Think about the most important and tragic events that took place during the years of the Soviet Union.
In 1916, the Royal family was discredited by the scandals of the odious personality, the mystery of which date to the end not solved. It is about Grigory Rasputin. Nicholas II made a few mistakes, first - the year of his coronation. But this is now not going to talk, and remember the events that preceded the creation of the Soviet state.
So, the First world war is in full swing. In St. Petersburg a rumor. Rumor has it that the Empress is divorcing her husband, goes to the monastery, from time to time engaged in espionage. Formed the opposition to the Russian Tsar. The participants, among whom were relatives of the king, demanded the removal of Rasputin from government.
While the princes were engaged in disputes with the king, was preparing a revolution which was to change the course of world history. Armed rallies continued for several days in February. Ended the coup. A Provisional government was formed which lasted long.
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Then there was the October revolution, the Civil war. The years of the Soviet Union, historians divide into several periods. During the first, which lasted until 1953, was in power former revolutionary, known in narrow circles under a nickname of Koba.
By the end of 1922 the power was six political figures: Stalin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, Rykov, Kamenev, Tomsky. But to run the state needs one person. Between the former revolutionaries started to struggle.
Trotsky had sympathy nor Kamenev, nor Zinoviev, nor Tomsk. Especially did not like the people's Commissar for military Affairs to Stalin. Dzhugashvili, a negative attitude to him since the days of the Civil war. They say he didn't like education, erudition of Leon Trotsky, which is used for political gatherings to read the French classics in the original. But, of course, not the case. In the political struggle of ordinary human likes and dislikes. The battle between the revolutionaries ended with the victory of Stalin. In subsequent years, he methodically removed his other associates.
The Stalinist years were marked by repression. First there was the forced collectivization, then the arrests. How many people in this terrible time turned into camp dust, how it was shot? Hundreds of thousands of people. The peak of Stalinist repression occurred in 1937-1938.
Over the years of existence of the USSR there were many tragic events. In 1941 the war began that claimed about 25 million lives. These losses are incomparable. Before Yuri Levitan announced on the radio about the attack of the German armed forces on the Soviet Union, no one believed that there is a world ruler who is not afraid to direct their aggression towards the USSR.
World war II historians are divided into three periods. The first starts on 22 June 1941 and ends with the battle of Moscow, where the Germans were defeated. The second ends with the battle of Stalingrad. The third period – the expulsion of the enemy troops outside the Soviet Union, the liberation of the occupied European countries and the capitulation of Germany.
The Soviet Union was not ready for war. When it started, it turned out that many commanders were shot, and those who are alive, are far in the camps. They immediately liberated, brought into a normal state and sent to the front. The war was over. Several years passed, and a new wave of repression, now among the senior officers.
Arrested were major generals close of Marshal Zhukov. Among them, Lieutenant-General Telegin and air Marshal Novikov. The Zhukov a little oppressed, but especially do not touch. Too great was his authority. For the victims of the latest wave of repression, for those who survived the camps, March 5, 1953 was the happiest day. Died “leader” and with him went into the history of the camp for political prisoners.
In 1956 Khrushchev denounced Stalin's personality cult. At the top of the party supported him. Indeed, for many years, even the most prominent political figure could at any time be in disgrace, and then to be shot or sent to camp. During the existence of the Soviet Union during the thaw was marked by the softening of the totalitarian regime. People went to bed and wasn't afraid in the night to raise their state security officers and taken to the Lubyanka, where he will have to confess to espionage, attempted assassination of Stalin and other fictional crimes. But denunciations, provocations still took place.
During the thaw the word "security officer" had a pronounced negative connotation. In fact, the distrust of the intelligence originated much earlier, back in the thirties. But the official approval of the term "chekist" lost after the report made by Khrushchev in 1956.
The Period of stagnation is not a historical term, and propaganda and literary clichés. Appeared after the speech Gorbachev, in which he noted the occurrence of stagnation in the economy and social life. The era of stagnation conventionally begins with the coming to power of Brezhnev and ends with the beginning of perestroika. One of the main problems of this period was the increasing trade deficit. In the world of culture the rules of censorship. In the years of stagnation in the USSR was the first terrorist acts. The period witnessed several high-profile cases to capture passenger aircraft.
In 1979, began a war that lasted ten years. Over the years, killed more than thirteen thousand Soviet soldiers. But these data have been published only in 1989. The biggest losses occurred in 1984. Against the war in Afghanistan actively supported the Soviet dissidents. Andrei Sakharov for his pacifist speech was sent into exile. Burials of zinc coffins was secret. At least until 1987. On the grave of a soldier was not to indicate that he died in Afghanistan. The official date of the end of the war - February 15, 1989.
This period in the history of the Soviet Union called restructuring. The last years of the Soviet Union (1985-1991) can be summarized as follows: a sharp change in ideology, political and economic life.
In may 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev, who held that time General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee just over two months, said a remarkable phrase: "All of us, comrades, it's time to rebuild". Hence the term. In the media has been talking about restructuring, in the minds of ordinary citizens originated a dangerous desire for change. The last years of the Soviet Union, historians are divided into four stages:
An enumeration of the events that took place from 1989 to 1991, and will chronicle the collapse of the USSR.
About the need to reform the system, Gorbachev said at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU in April 1985. Meant active use of achievements of scientific-technical progress, changes in the procedure of planning. On democracy, transparency and the socialist market yet and it was not. Although today the term “restructuring” is associated with freedom of speech, which first began a few years before the demise of the Soviet Union.
The Years of Gorbachev's rule, especially in the first phase, was marked by the hopes of Soviet citizens for change, the long-awaited changes for the better. Gradually, however, the inhabitants of the vast country began to be disappointed in a political figure, who was destined to become the last Secretary General. Particular criticism has caused the anti-alcohol campaign.
History shows that attempts to wean our citizens from drinking alcohol do not bring any fruit. The first anti-alcohol campaign held by the Bolsheviks in 1917. A second attempt was made eight years later. Drunkenness and alcoholism tried to fight in the early seventies, and very peculiar: banned the production of alcoholic beverages, but expanded the production of wine.
Alcohol campaign of the eighties was called "Gorbachev",...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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