The history of the monastery Pafnuteva Borowski, as well as the fate of its founder display an amazing event. They are mentioned in the annals of the Russian land. The majestic monument of glory and spiritual sanctuary is the House of Christmas the blessed virgin Mary and the great miracle-worker of Paphnutius.
Borovsky monastery named in honor of the monk Paphnutius, who was born in the village Kudinovo (about 4 kilometers from the city of Kirov) in the family of distinguished piety. At the moment of baptism, the miracle worker was named parthenius. He had a grandfather who, according to ancient legend, was the Tatar Baskakov, who converted to the Orthodox faith. When Parthenius was twenty years old, he joined the Highly-Pokrovki Borovsky monastery, where he was tonsured and given a new name - Pafnutiy. The Abbot, noting the heart's desire of the young man, appointed him a mentor of mine, Nikita, who for nineteen years was the Manager of the Serpukhov Vysotsky monastery and went to the disciples of St. Sergius of Radonezh.
After twenty years of sublime spiritual life the spiritual Paphnutius rose up to “teach; husband”. Metropolitan Photius, who oversaw all the Orthodox monasteries in Russia, awarded him the honor of becoming the Abbot of the monastery. In 1444, the monk left the monastery of the intercession at the behest of God. He settled nearby, in a deserted place, where the river flows into the Protva Isterim, three miles from Borovsk. Soon, there also was created the monastery. Later, it was added to the name Church of the Nativity, built at the behest of Metropolitan Jonah.
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The Voluntary abdication of Paphnutii of worldly life was not extremely severe, but he strictly followed the Church order, rules, statutes. As guardian of the canons, he did not recognize Metropolitan Jonah, since he was elected, but not approved by the Patriarch of Constantinople, standing over all the monasteries in Russia.
The Date of Foundation of Borovsk monastery is 1444. Paphnutius called his house most Holy Mother of God. In your chosen field St. operated for over thirty years. He consecrated the monastery his prayers and work, collected in this fraternity and was raised all in obedience and fear of God.
After receiving Paphnutii of the Lord notice of his impending death, he spent the remaining time in praying and fasting, and instructing students. The monk put the hopes of your own soul and entrusted to him the abode of God and his most pure mother. He lived to please the Lord in the life of the ascetic, 82. During this time, Paphnutius gathered the brethren of the ninety-five.
Relative to the laity the Reverend Paphnutius was harsh. By boyars and princes, he refused to accept the gifts and letters. Despite the fact that Orthodox monasteries were opened then in Russia in considerable quantity, it is the abode of Paphnutius was very famous. It was especially fond of some great princes that have elevated the monk to the rank of the Holy family. Ivan the terrible supposedly born due to the prayers of the elder of Paphnutius. The king has ranked his name to a number of great saints who guarded all the men's monasteries of Moscow (it also includes Cyril of Belozero and St. Sergius of Radonezh).
For 18 years, the monk Paphnutii trained Ionian upbringing of Joseph of Volokolamsk. Subsequently he became a great Church worker. Joseph led the Borovsk monastery after the death of Paphnutius in 1477.
The novices of Saint Pafnutiy include:
1. Joseph Vassian Sanin, who became the author's descriptions of the life of the monk.
2. Reverend David, who founded the ascension the desert.
3. The godfather of Ivan the terrible.
4. The monk Daniel, who founded the Trinity monastery on the territory of Pereslavl-Zalessky.
Paphnutius was approved by the Association under the authority of the Moscow principalities, so it was supported by the heads of the feudal monarchy. In 1467 Borovsky monastery was added and a stone Cathedral of the Nativity of the virgin. Place it invited famous painter Mitrophan. A great thinker and artist had a great influence on the formation of the monastery special handicraft traditions. Among those who are deeply inspired by it, was Saint Macarius. He is also tonsured elder St. Paphnutius. Later, Macarius was the head of the Russian Orthodox Church (in 1542 1563).
His soul, the elder Borovsky monastery was abandoned in God's hands the first of may (old style calendar) in 1477, in the evening, an hour before sunset.
God created man through his many miracles, leaving to later generations is an example of a life that is pleasing to Him. Of Pafnutii preserved the sacred memory to the present day. The will of God, the monastery was repeatedly preserved from ruin. At the present time the Lord is also the Holy man of prayer and intercessor for all the people who with love and faith come to Him.
In the sixteenth century pafnouty (Borovsky) monastery became one of the richest and most famous in Russia. It was there in 1513, in the summer before advance in the direction of Smolensk, stayed the main forces of the sovereign troops, which was headed by Vasily the Third. Monasteries of the Kaluga region at that time was insufficiently protected against the invasion of attacking enemies. But that changed soon enough. For the second half of the sixteenth century Borovsky monastery was surrounded by stone walls and equipped with towers. It occupied a favorable strategic position in the South-Western outskirts of Moscow. Walls and towers have suffered considerably during the great Unrest but was rebuilt in the seventeenth century, a native of Kashin by Securenym the trophy, which was a hereditary Mason and a true master of his craft.
At the monastery in 1511, was built the Church of the Nativity of Christ. It also built the majestic refectory chamber. At the end of the same century the Cathedral was rebuilt. He became one of the most advanced at the time. The five-domed with four pillars, Borovsky monastery was of such architecture, in which clearly discernible characteristic features of the Archangel Cathedral, part of the Moscow Kremlin. In 1651 he painted frescoes, and in 1651 built and the chapel of the name of the Holy Martyr Irene. The composition of the architecture of the Church itself violated the nineteenth-century alteration of the domes and create a rabbet.
When the Borovsk in July 1610 came false Dmitry the Second, called Tushino, his troops were not enough to take the fortress-monastery. It happened only when the Governor-traitors themselves opened the gates. In the monastery occurred the unequal struggle. Force thousands of troops were exterminated all local residents who took refuge in the monastery, and the brethren. Prince Mikhail Volkonsky, who led the defense in battle was killed in the Cathedral. Also killed Archimandrite Nikon (the Abbot of the monastery) and Joseph, who was a defender of the Trinity-Sergius monastery. Attacked the soldiers stole all the wealth. While charters and documents of the monastery was destroyed by fire. It was a sign of reverence for the memory of the heroism of Prince Volkonsky and of this defense Borovsk had his own coat of arms. It depicts the symbol of loyalty, the heart with a cross framed by a Laurel wreath.
After the destruction of the pafnutiev monastery was not only restored, but also experienced a period of prosperity. It happened in the seventeenth century. At that time, was formed the architectural ensemble of the monastery, which is almost unchanged to the present time. Visitors in the 19th century noted that he is very neat and tidy, it was felt a special tranquility, silence and peace. In the 17-19 centuries pafnouty (Borovsky) monastery was famous for its rare frescoes and icons, an extensive library and sacristy. To the monastery in 1744 was assigned 11000 farmers. To this day have not heard the names of famous ascetics of the time. However, on the basis of what the spirit in the monastery, as it established a quiet life, you can see how steadily and quietly in the works of obedience and monastic services proceeded their lives.
In 1666-1667 years in prison Borovsky monastery contained the infamous Avvakum. Then he was exiled to the prison of Postopera. Also incarcerated in the monastery prison, according to the decrees of the Emperor, was Boyarynya Morozova, who persisted in schism. In addition, the prison kept her sister Urusova and the spouse of the Streltsy Colonel Danilov. These victims of the propaganda of dissenters in the autumn of 1675 here and died of starvation.
The Monastery even after all the destruction flourished. This could not prevent the raids and three-time Napoleon's army in 1812. In the same way as in 1610, then plundered the monastery the male (photo of the monastery of Saint Pafnutiy you can see in the article) and burned the library. But the biggest devastation was yet to come. In 1932, the monastery was closed. Its territory was incorporated into the Museum. Later the monastery was turned into a penal colony. Then it was arranged for...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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