In the Fall of 1956, an event occurred which, after the fall of the Communist regime was known as the Hungarian uprising and Soviet sources called counter-revolutionary rebellion. But, regardless of how they characterize those or other ideologies, it was an attempt of the Hungarian people by force of arms to overthrow the country's Pro-Soviet regime. She entered a number of the most important events of the cold war showed that the Soviet Union was ready to use military force to preserve its control over the Warsaw Pact countries.
To understand the reasons for the uprising that took place in 1956, we should look at the political and economic situation of the country in 1956. First of all, note that during the Second world war Hungary fought on the side of the Nazis, therefore, in accordance with the articles of the Treaty of Paris, signed anti-Hitler coalition, the Soviet Union had the right to keep its territory its troops until the withdrawal of allied occupation forces from Austria.
Immediately after the war in Hungary, held a General election in which the Independent party of small owners with a significant margin defeated the Communist VAC – Hungarian workers ' party. As it became known later, the ratio was 57% versus 17 %. However, relying on the support located in the country of a contingent of the Soviet armed forces in 1947 VAC by fraud, threats and blackmail seized power, giving himself the right to be the only legal political party.
The Hungarian Communists tried to imitate its Soviet party members, no wonder their leader, mátyás rákosi got the nickname the best disciple of Stalin. This “honor” he was awarded due to the fact that, setting the country's personal dictatorship, trying to copy the Stalinist model of government. In the situation of blatant tyranny by force was held industrialization and collectivization, and in the field of ideology ruthlessly suppressed any dissent. The country has turned the fight against the Catholic Church.
During the reign of Rakosi was created by a powerful security apparatus – AVH, numbering in its ranks 28 thousand employees, which helped 40 thousand informants. All aspects of life of the citizens of Hungary were under the control of the service. As it became known in the post-Communist period, the dossiers were filed per million inhabitants country, of which 655 thousand has been harassed and 450 thousand were serving various prison terms. They were used as free labor in the mines and in the mines.
In Economics, as well as in political life, has developed an extremely difficult situation. It was caused by the fact that as a military ally of Germany, Hungary was to pay the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia considerable reparation, the payment of which has taken almost a quarter of national income. Of course, this had an extremely negative impact on the living standards of ordinary citizens.
Certain changes in the country's life came in 1953 when, due to the obvious failure of industrialization and the weakening of ideological pressure from the Soviet Union caused by Stalin's death, hateful people mátyás rákosi was deposed as head of government. His place was taken by another Communist Imre Nagy, a supporter of immediate and radical reforms in all areas of life.
As a result of taken measures was halted political persecution and pardoned their former victims. A special decree Nagy put an end to the internment of citizens and their forced eviction from the cities on social grounds. It was also stopped construction of a number of unprofitable large industrial facilities, and released them the means directed on development of food and light industry. Beyond that, government authorities eased the pressure on agriculture has reduced the tariffs for the population and reduced prices on products.
However, despite the fact that such measures made the new head of government are very popular among the people, they were the reason for the escalation of inner-party struggle in VAC. Dismissed from the post of head of government, but to preserve the leading position in the party, mátyás rákosi by backstage intrigues and with the support of the Soviet Communists managed to defeat his political opponents. The result of Imre Nagy, onwho have placed their faith most ordinary people in the country, was removed from office and expelled from the party.
The Result of this was carried out by Hungarian Communists the resumption of the Stalinist line of leadership of the state and the continuation of political repression. All of this has caused extreme discontent of the General public. People began openly to demand the return to power of Nagy, General election, built on an alternative basis and, crucially, the withdrawal of the Soviet troops. This last requirement was particularly relevant, since the signing in may 1955 the Warsaw Pact gave the Soviet Union to maintain its contingent of troops in Hungary.
The Hungarian uprising was the result of the worsening political situation in the country in 1956. An important role was played by the events of that year in Poland, where there was open anti-Communist speeches. The result was a strengthening of critical attitudes among students and the writing community. In mid-October a significant proportion of youth stated about the withdrawal from the “Democratic youth League”, which was an analogue of the Soviet Komsomol, and entry into pre-existent, but dispersed by the Communist student Union.
As often happened in the past, the impetus to the beginning of the uprising gave the students. By 22 October they were formulated and presented to government requirements, which included the appointment of Nagy as Prime Minister, the organization of democratic elections, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country and the demolition of monuments to Stalin. Banners with such slogans were preparing to carry the participants scheduled for the following day of national demonstrations.
This procession, which began in Budapest in exactly fifteen hours, attracted more than two hundred thousand participants. History of Hungary can barely remember otherwise, so unanimous political will. By this time the Soviet Ambassador, future KGB chief, Yuri Andropov immediately got in touch with Moscow and reported in detail about everything happening in the country. He finished his message a recommendation to provide the Hungarian Communists comprehensive, including military, assistance.
By evening of the same day the newly appointed first Secretary of the VAC erne Gera spoke on the radio condemning the demonstrators and threats in their address. In response, a crowd of demonstrators rushed to storm the building, where the broadcasting Studio. Between them and units of the security forces there was an armed clash, in which appeared the first dead and wounded.
About the source of the demonstrators weapons in the Soviet media put forward the claim that it was pre-delivered to Hungary by Western intelligence agencies. However, from the testimony of participants in the events shows that it was received or just taken away from reinforcements sent to help the defenders radio. Also it was mined in the warehouses of the civil defense, and captured police stations.
Soon the uprising spread to the whole of Budapest. The army and units of the state security had serious resistance, first, because of its small size – there were only two and a half thousand people, and secondly, due to the fact that many of them openly sympathized with the rebels.
In addition, we received orders not to open fire on civilians, and it deprived the military of its ability to take serious action. As a result, by the evening of October 23 in the hands of the people was a key objects: warehouses, printing of Newspapers and Central station. Aware of the danger of the current situation on the night of 24 October, the Communists, wishing to gain time, the newly appointed Imre Nagy as Prime Minister, and they themselves appealed to the government of the USSR to send troops to Hungary to suppress the Hungarian uprising.
The Result of the appeal was the entry into the country 6,500 troops, tanks 295, and a significant number of other military technology. In response to this extra formed the Hungarian national Committee addressed to the President of the United States request for military aid to the rebels.
The Morning of October 26 during a rally in the square outside the Parliament building, with the roof opened fire, which killed a Soviet officer and was ignited the tank. This provoked a return fire, which cost the lives of hundreds of demonstrators. The news of the incident quickly spread through the country and resulted in mass killings of residents with the KGB and just the military.
Despite the fact that wanting to normalize the situation in the country, the government declared Amnesty for all participants in the rebellion, voluntarily laid down their arms, clashes continued allthe days that followed. No impact on the current situation and replace the first Secretary of the VAC erne Gera Janos Kadaram. In many areas, the leadership of party and government institutions are simply ran, and in their place spontaneously formed local governments.
As evidenced by the participants in the events, after the unfortunate incident in the square before the Parliament of the Soviet troops did not take action against the demonstrators. After the head of the government of Imre Nagy on the condemnation of the former “Stalinist" methods of leadership, the dissolution of the state security forces and start negotiations on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country many have the impression that the Hungarian uprising has reached the desired results. Fighting in the city stopped for the first time in the last days of silence. The result of Nadia talks with the Soviet leadership began the withdrawal of troops, which began on October 30.
These days, many areas of the country was in complete anarchy. The old power structures were destroyed and new created. The government, meeting in Budapest, virtually no influence on what was happening on the streets, and there has been a sharp rise in crime, as the prisons with political prisoners was released more than ten thousand criminals.
Moreover, the situation was aggravated by the fact that the Hungarian uprising in 1956 very soon became radicalized. This resulted in the massacre of military personnel, former employees of the security organs, and even rank-and-file Communists. The building of the Central Committee of VPT were executed more than twenty party leaders. In those days photographs of their mutilated bodies flew over the pages of many international publications. The Hungarian revolution began to take features of "senseless and merciless» riot.
The Subsequent suppression of the uprising by Soviet troops was made possible primarily as a result of the position taken by the US government. Promising Cabinet Nagy military and economic support, the Americans at a critical moment abandoned their obligations, leaving Moscow to freely intervene in the situation. The Hungarian uprising of 1956 was almost doomed to failure when the October 31 meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU N. Khrushchev spoke in favor of adopting the most radical measures to establish the country's Communist government.
Based On his orders the Minister of defense of the USSR Marshal Georgy Zhukov led the development of a plan for an armed invasion of Hungary, called “Whirlwind”. It provided for the participation in hostilities of fifteen armored, motorized and infantry divisions, with the involvement of the air force and amphibious units. For the implementation of this operation, spoke almost all the leaders of the countries-participants of the Warsaw Pact.
The Operation of “Whirlwind” started with the fact that on 3 November the forces of the Soviet KGB, was arrested recently appointed Minister of defense of Hungary, major-General Pavel Maleter. This happened during the talks held in the town of Tököl, near Budapest. Enter the main contingent of the armed forces, personally commanded by Zhukov, was made on the morning of the next day. The official reason for this was the request of the government headed by Janos Kadar. In the short term forces captured all the major sites of Budapest. Imre Nagy, saving his life, left the government building and took refuge in the Embassy of Yugoslavia. Later his deception will lure out, betray the court, and together with PAL Maletero publicly hanged as traitors.
Major events took place on 4 November. In the capital of the Hungarian rebels had the Soviet troops desperate resistance. To suppress it has been applied to the flamethrowers, and incendiary and smoke shells. But fearing a negative reaction of the international community for a large number of civilian casualties have kept the command from the bombing of the city already raised in the air aircraft.
In the next few days were suppressed in all the available pockets of resistance, after which the Hungarian revolution of 1956 took the form of underground struggle with the Communist regime. In varying degrees, it is not faded in the decades to come. As soon as the country finally established Pro-Soviet regime started mass arrests of participants in the recent uprising. The history of Hungary began to develop according to Stalin's scenario.
Researchers estimate that at the time it was made about 360 of the death penalty, 25 thousand citizens have been prosecuted, and 14 thousand of them were serving various prison terms. For years for ‘iron curtain», cut off Eastern Europe from the rest of the world was Hungary. Soviet Union – the main stronghold of the Communist ideology – vigilantly the developments in the countries under his control.
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