Everyone who is even slightly concerned questions of botany, had to hear that distinction of plants, both flowering and nesvatkove. The latter have another name, reflecting the essence of their method of reproduction - spore. What plants are called spore? Those for reproduction and distribution of their seeds chose the most ancient in evolutionary terms method - the formation of tiny, varied in form structures - dispute.
To answer this question as fully as possible, let's start with the definition of the controversy itself (in translation from Greek spora "seed", "seed", "seed"). This small structure no larger than 1 microns (10-3 mm), varied in form and color, which plays the role of the seed all the spore, giving rise to the development of the embryo of the future plant.
To Generate disputes is the prerogative of not all types of existing plants. It is believed that this ability actually came to the flora from the distant past, when I'd started to appear first land plants and the life in addition to water originated on land.
It is Known that the most ancient plants are seaweed, horsetail, moss and ferns. It is their historical roots in such periods like the Cretaceous, Carboniferous and Silurian. And they to this day are the inhabitants of forests, plains, swamps, steppes, and polar region different continents.
Such a long existence was possible, in part, because they are just spore. Therefore, the question about which plants called spore, we can give the definite answer. Is ferns, mosses, moss, horsetail (the highest category), as well as algae and lichens from the lower category.
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The main features that distinguish all spore-bearing plants include the following:
These are the main features that distinguish spore-bearing plants from seed. Now let us consider the main representatives of this nadoedala.
Ferns - most widely known as for decorative purposes, and historically developed notions of the ancient flora of the spore plants. Examples of plants known to all gardeners and lovers of nature and forest solitude. Bracken, acadenic, trusnik - chic on the volume of plants that attract splendor and richness of foliage. They are ubiquitous in forest areas in areas with a temperate climate and high humidity.
The One who loves homemade potted flowers, probably also has or seen in other Nephrolepis is the most common indoor fern. In addition to external beauty such plants are relatively undemanding and require only a constant and abundant watering. Like all spore-bearing, they are not able to reproduce without water.
On the leaves of ferns are very visible sporangia with spores. They are located on the back of the fronds (leaves) and have the form of small rounded pouches brown or dark orange. They are small yellow powder is densely sprinkled disputes. After maturation of the sporangium opens, and the spores are poured into the environment.
Ferns have more than 10 thousand species, combined in 300 genera.
Very interesting and beautiful plants, forming a real forest floor, like a carpet - mosses. Spore-bearing plants that have very fine structures - the stem, leaves, stalk with a sporangium in the form of a box - it's all about them. So few of them who distinguishes in appearance, except that the real experts on the mosses.
The Colors of these plants are rich, lush green, the leaves rigid, small, cuneate. Although there are other forms, it depends on the type of moss. The main groups at the moment sledujushie:
Moss Only has about a hundred species, so the list includes only the most common and practical value.
Interestingthe peculiarity of these plants is that their sporangia similar to mugs with caps of various shapes. When spores Mature, the cap is opened and the stem, on top of which is a sporangium, stoops, and spores poured out.
Algae - spore-bearing plants, numbering currently about a hundred species, grouped into 11 major departments. The main distinguishing feature of these species of flora - life in the aquatic environment at different depths. The body is represented by the thallus, it has no leaves or roots. The last function these plants perform the translucent clingy hooks called rhizoids.
Algae belong to the lower plants because of the lack of division of the body organs. They also reproduce by spores. The main four divisions of algae, which are most prevalent and applicable in practical human activity, sledujushie:
Along with the ferns this group of spore plants once inhabited the entire land, but gradually went to the formation of deposits of peat and coal. Today, the horsetails are represented by a small number of species - there are about thirty.
The Most common in Russia - horsetail. It has a low plant with a stiff upright stem, divided into small segments of internodes from which come out bunches of leaves similar to needles. Overall, therefore, the horsetail resembles a small tree.
The Division of the body into small segments is a distinctive feature of all these representatives of the flora. Horsetail reproduces as other spore-bearing plants, with the change of generations, that is, asexually (spores) and sexual (sperm and oocytes).
An Interesting group of marsh plants, which differ from all other spores and their appearance. They have a beautiful, dotted with small leaves stems. Each of them seemed spread along the ground.
Total there are about forty-five types of silt. Biology of plants does not differ from that already considered by us earlier spore. They also have a life cycle of the change of the sporophyte and gametophyte depend on water, so grow only in marshy and very wet soils. Their sporangia are small dense elongated structure. After the spores Mature, they burst and the spores come out.
Approximately 26 thousand species of these plants, United in 400 births, has modern biology. These plants are different from all the other features of the structure and way of life. The fact that they represent a product of intense cooperation, the partnership between the two species - single-celled algae and fungi.
This symbiosis has several advantages:
Therefore, lichens and lower spore plants, however, have undoubted advantages over high in terms of lifestyle.
It was with spore plants came into existence the modern flora of our planet. A number of theories that life originated in the ocean. There appeared the first plants, which was lower spore algae. Gradually they moved inland, they have formed leaves and roots to hold in the soil. However, breeding was still in need of water.
Then the algae gave rise to the ancient ferns, horsetails, mosses and moss, which are in the process of dying many millions of years formed a whole mineral deposits. If the ancestral forms of spore-bearing plants had a wood structure, then you do not have to the trees is irrelevant.
The Whole process of the phylogeny of described species of flora took about four hundred million years. Now, however, the General characteristics of the spore of the plant allows to allocate them in nadatel, has not yet lost the final connection to the ancestors (for breeding still need water) but already developed and having new features.
Characteristics of spore plants allows us to understand that they are not as global practical value, as flowering. However, the scope of their use are numerous:
So we got a full and detailed response to the question about which plants called spore.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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