Pork tapeworm: photo, life cycle of the parasite, signs of human infection, treatment

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2019-06-04 11:20:44

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Pork tapeworm is a parasite of the class of tapeworms. Another name for this helminth - specimen. Its intermediate hosts are domestic pigs or wild boars, and finally, the parasite lives in the human body and can live there for up to 25 years. Worms cause dangerous diseases, taeniasis or cysticercosis. These pathologies affect not only the digestive tract. The tapeworm larvae can spread in the body and cause severe disease of the Central nervous system, eyes, or lungs. Infection occurs when eating infected meat or poor hygiene. Especially prone to this disease people who live in regions with developed pig production industries.

The structure of the helminth body

Pork tapeworm - it is a huge tape worm. Its length can reach 4 meters and more. On one end of the body of the helminth is head. This body is also called the scolex. The head has four suckers and numerous hooks, by which the worms attached to the intestine.

The Structure of the pork tapeworm is segmented. His long white body is composed of segments. Their number can reach up to 1000. This parasite is hermaphroditic organism in each caudal segment are male and female organs (testes and ovaries). Here is the process of reproduction, are formed the eggs. Within them is a germ - oncosphere. Daily produces up to 50 million eggs. Segments with oncospheres as maturation separates from the body and secreted from the intestines with feces. Photo pork tapeworm can be seen later in the article.

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Pork tapeworm

Lifecycle

Eggs with oncospheres come out of the human intestines with the feces. When released into the soil they accidentally swallowed a pig with food. Further life cycle of the pork tapeworm occurs inside the body of Pets. In the stomach of pigs destroyed the shell of an egg. The germs come out. They are globular organisms with hooks. Using these devices they are distributed on the body of the animal with the blood flow. Oncospheres can get into different organs and tissues, but their main concentration is noted in the muscles.

In the organs and muscles of animals continues the development cycle of the pork tapeworm. After 60 - 70 days turn into oncosphere larvae. They are called cysticerci or Finns. They are like the bubbles inside of which is a small parasite scolex of the future.

By eating undercooked or cooked pork larvae get into the human body. In the small intestines of the cysticerci formed adult worms. Inside the body may dwell, not one worm, but several. 60 days after infection with feces leave the segments with eggs. When they are ingested with food begin a new life cycle of the pork tapeworm.

Ways of infection

Usually a person can become infected by eating poorly processed pork infected with the larvae of the parasite. In this case, the body is a larva, which grows in the intestine to the adult worm.

Raw meat - the source of infection

In violation of the rules of hygiene and possible contamination from an infected person. The disease is transmitted through underwear, infected food, dirty hands and personal hygiene items. This contamination of the pork tapeworm is especially dangerous. In this case, the larvae derived from the eggs inside the body. They can get into different organs, which leads to serious diseases that can result in death.

Unlike the swine and bovine tapeworm

Beef tapeworm resembles the structure of the specimen, but has a length of up to 10 meters. It is also a tapeworm, consisting of segments and head. However, the pork tapeworm is considered more dangerous. Its head is fitted with hooks that irritate the intestines.

A bullish tapeworm Infestation never occurs by ingestion of eggs. In the intestine formed only adult parasite. Human infection by the pork tapeworm possible through the egg. In this case the larvae are formed in the body, are distributed with the bloodstream and cause severe organ damage. For this reason, the specimen is considered to be more dangerous worms than beef tapeworm.

What diseases is caused by a parasite

When the infestation in humans may occur in two forms of the disease:

  • Taeniasis;
  • Cysticercosis.

The pathology depends on the method of infection pork tapeworm. If the human body were the larvae of the helminth, taeniasis develops. In this case, in the intestines of adults are developing worm. If there was infestation by eggs that are produced in the body and spread the larvae. This disease is called cysticercosis, it is considered more dangerous.

Taeniasis develops when infected through the meat. Cysticercosis is usually transmitted from an infected person. The patient may also be infected from himself. If the patient teniasis poorly washed hands after using the toilet, he can put the segments in the mouth. During vomiting the eggs from the intestine can enter the stomach. In such cases, the complication becomes cysticercosis teniasis.

The Patient teniasis need to carefully observe hygiene to avoid samsarajade. Cysticercosis is a more complex disease that is difficult for the therapy.

Symptoms of teniasis

When teniasis in thinhuman intestinal parasite adult worms. This disease is characterized mainly by lesions of the digestive tract and poisoning the body with toxins. You experience the following signs of pork tapeworm,

  1. Pain in the abdomen. The parasite irritates the intestinal mucosa by hooks, leading to inflammation.
  2. Dyspeptic symptoms. The patient is deteriorating appetite, there is belching and discomfort in the intestine after a meal. Often the body weight reduces.
  3. Asthenic and neurotic symptoms. The person becomes listless and gets tired, often have headaches, dizziness, irritability and nervousness. Such characteristics are related to the lack of nutrients that worms takes from the body.
  4. Allergies. Such symptoms arise from effects on the body metabolic products of the worm.
  5. The Segments in the stool. In the stool you may notice small streaks of yellowish-white color. They can be flexible. It's the body segments of the worm containing eggs.
Pain when teniasis

The presence of the parasite in the intestine may cause irritation of the pancreas and bile ducts. Taeniasis may be complicated by pancreatitis and cholecystitis.

Symptoms of cysticercosis

If the human body were eggs of worms and the distribution of larvae, then there is cysticercosis. While the adult worms in the body is not detected. This disease has different forms. The symptoms of pork tapeworm in this case depend on the localization of larvae.

The Most dangerous form of the disease is cysticercosis of the brain. It is found in more than half of the cases. In the brain tissues of the larvae can live a very long time, over 15 years. The Central nervous system is characterized by the following features:

  • Weakness of the muscles;
  • Hallucinations, delusions;
  • Depression;
  • Memory loss;
  • Mental disorders.

In advanced forms there is swelling of the brain, headaches, vomiting, seizures.

Headache when cysticercosis

If the larvae affect the spinal cord is compressed its roots. Following symptoms occur:

  • Pain in spine and in limbs;
  • Pain zoster nature in the chest and abdomen;
  • Violation of the movements (in severe cases, paralysis).

If you get maggots in the eye parasites accumulate in the sclera, the retina and the vitreous body. This is manifested in the blurred vision, inflammation of eye tissues and can lead to blindness.

The Larvae can penetrate into the lungs. There they grow to 2 cm, covered with a capsule and squeeze the fabric. The patient has symptoms of pneumonia:

  • Shortness of breath;
  • Cough;
  • Breathing difficulties.

However, cysticercosis of the lungs very often occurs without a pronounced clinical picture. The disease is often detected by chance during radiographic examination.

Cysticerci can penetrate the heart. In this case, the pork tapeworm symptoms in humans are mild, but often there are bouts of arrhythmia. However, heart disease is very dangerous, because there is a serious malfunction of the myocardium. In severe cases, possible heart failure.

In very rare cases, the larvae affect the skin and the muscles. In the subcutaneous tissue there are cusps. They are fluid filled with larva. Cysticerci can grow up to 10 cm Is a process stated by the type of urticaria. But very often there is asymptomatic of the disease.

The Parasite pork tapeworm in the larval form is particularly dangerous for pregnant women. Cysticerci can pass through the placenta and cause abnormalities of fetal development. Very often, in this case, the child is still-born or a miscarriage occurs. When cysticercosis in pregnant women in early pregnancy doctors often recommend abortion for medical reasons.

Diagnostics teniasis

When teniasis the parasite lives in the intestine. Therefore, to detect its presence is usually easier than when cysticercosis. In the diagnosis using the following methods:

  1. Stool sample. Helps detect the segments of parasites.
  2. Microscopic examination of a scraping from the anus. This analysis also reveals the presence of segments.
  3. Coprogram. Identifies the chemical composition of the feces, which changes when teniasis.
  4. General blood test. Patients are determined by the signs of inflammation: leukocytosis and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  5. Serological blood test. Detects the presence of antibodies to swine ZANU.
Diagnosis of pork tapeworm

An Important role in the diagnosis plays history collection. You need to find out did people in eat bad processed pork meat. Also take into account the prevalence of teniasis in the region.

Diagnosis of cysticercosis

Diagnosis of cysticercosis is more challenging, as intestinal parasites are absent. Is necessarily performed serological examination of blood for antibodies to the parasites. Only this method can objectively indicate infection. An important role plays the study of eosinophils, increased number of these blood cells indirect sign of infestation. The appointment of additional types of analyses will bedepend on the localization of the larvae:

  1. When cysticercosis of the brain is necessary to differentiate the disease from tumors of the Central nervous system, epilepsy and meningitis. Assign the study of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood eosinophils, as well as MRI scans.
  2. If there is a lesion of the spinal cord, it is necessary to do an MRI or CT scan mielografia.
  3. When cysticercosis eye conduct eye screening and biopsy samples is implemented a study that will help identify larvae.
  4. With the defeat of lungs doing a blood test for eosinophils and x-rays.
  5. If the larvae have penetrated into the heart, it is necessary to make ECG and echocardiography.
  6. Cysticercosis of the skin and muscle is very difficult to diagnose, usually it is detected only when serologic analysis. It is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection of the skin and a biopsy of the bumps.

Treatment of teniasis

Treatment of the pork tapeworm is carried out only in a hospital setting. Before conducting anthelmintic treatment patient is prescribed a diet. Limit the consumption of fatty, smoked and farinaceous food. Do not eat canned food, cheese, sour cream, onion, garlic and cabbage. These products can feed the parasites.

Then once the patient is taking one of anthelmintic drugs: "Vermoxum", "Fenasal", "Biltricid". They paralyze the body of a tapeworm. The parasite detaches from the wall of the intestine and out in feces. The treatment is complemented with the consumption of laxatives and cleansing enemas appointment. Also use b vitamins in form of injection to compensate for iron deficiency in the body.

"Fenasala" from pork tapeworm

After the worm is released from the gut, his body should be investigated. It is important to make sure the parasite is completely removed and the body left segments. For this reason, the treatment is carried out only in a hospital. Then the patient needs another 4 months to see a doctor and hand over analyses of a feces.

Is it Possible to use folk remedies to combat teniasis? They should be used only with the consent of the attending physician, as a Supplement to drug therapy. Anthelmintic properties of fern and pumpkin seeds. However, to cure taeniasis at home is impossible. Only a doctor can determine that the parasite out of the body completely.

Treatment of cysticercosis

Cysticercosis is a more complex disease and hard to treat. Therapy is carried out only in hospital. Sometimes you have to use not only medical, but also surgical methods of treatment. Medication is prescribed with great caution, since the death of larvae is often accompanied by the release of toxins. This can cause an allergic reaction that often ends in death. It is not only important to kill the parasites, but immediately remove them from the body. The choice of treatment will depend on localization of parasites:

  1. If the brain is marked by a small number of larvae, then they are removed surgically. If cysticerci lot, prescribe drugs: "Biltricid and Nematol".
  2. With the defeat of the eye of the larvae is also removed surgically, in case of impossibility of surgical intervention prescribed "Biltricid".
  3. Cysticercosis of the skin is treated only surgically, tubercles of larvae open and remove the parasite.
  4. When cysticercosis of the soft tissues the patient is under medical supervision. Surgical treatment applies only when irritations.
Anthelmintic drug "Biltricid"

The Purpose of anthelminthic drugs for cysticercosis is usually combined with corticosteroids. This helps to reduce the harmful effects of toxins released by the death of the larvae. If the brain damage observed epileptic seizures, the prescribed anticonvulsant medications.

Prognosis

The Forecast is usually favorable teniasis. Anthelmintic treatment often leads to complete elimination of the parasite from the body. When cysticercosis forecast deteriorates significantly. Brain or spinal cord, and eyes and hearts often ends in death. The death comes amid an epileptic seizure. Relatively favorable flows only cysticercosis of the skin for prompt treatment.

Cysticercosis of the eye can result in blindness. Without treatment, the deterioration in vision is steadily progressing and the recovery is not always possible.

Prevention

To avoid contamination, you must thoroughly thermally processed pork. In regions with a high prevalence of teniasis and cysticercosis need to check meat for the presence of tapeworm larvae. It is also important to wash your hands to avoid infection from a sick person or yourself.

To Completely eliminate the human infection in the endemic region is very difficult. Even the simultaneous treatment of people and animals from teniasis and cysticercosis does not always give positive results.

In recent years conducted research to develop a vaccine for domestic pigs. Kind of vaccination possible, since the invasion, the body forms antibodies. Currently, this vaccine is created. However, until she held only the experimental tests in which it has proven its effectiveness. At the moment it is difficult to say, how to act the vaccine under real conditions. Howeversuch a vaccine could be an important measure in the prevention of infection by the parasite.

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