Cold fusion is also called cold fusion. Its essence lies in the possibility of realization of nuclear fusion reaction taking place in any chemical systems. This assumes the absence of significant overheating of the working medium. As you know, the usual nuclear reactions they create temperature that can be measured in millions of degrees Kelvin. Cold fusion in theory does not require such a high temperature.
The Study of cold fusion, on the one hand, is a clean fraud. No other scientific field it is not comparable. On the other hand, it is possible that this field of science is not fully understood, and it cannot be considered a utopia, and even more fraud. However, in the history of cold fusion is still present if not liars, then surely crazy.
The Recognition of the pseudo-science of this area and the reason for the criticism which has been the technology of cold fusion, were the numerous failures of scientists working in this field and also produced individuals of fraud. Since 2002, most scientists believe that the work on this issue is futile.
However, some still attempt to carry out such reaction proceed. So, in 2008, a Japanese scientist from the University of Osaka publicly demonstrated experiment performed with a electrochemical cell. It was Yoshiaki Arata. After a demonstration of scientific society again began to talk about the possibility or impossibility of cold fusion, which can provide nuclear physics. Some scientists, qualified in nuclear physics and chemistry, engaged in the search for justification of this phenomenon. And they do it in order to find nuclear an explanation and another alternative. In addition it is also due to the fact that the information about neutron radiation do not exist.
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The history of the publication of this variety of research areas in the eyes of the international community is suspicious. It all started 23 March 1989. It was then that Professor Martin Flashman with his partner Stanley Pons held a press conference, which was held at the University, where he worked chemists in Utah (USA). Then they said that they had carried out the reaction of cold nuclear fusion by ordinary electric current through the electrolyte. According to chemists, a reaction they were able to get a positive energy yield, or heat. In addition, they observed nuclear radiation resulting from the reaction and coming from the electrolyte.
His statement literally made a splash in the scientific community. Of course, low-temperature nuclear fusion produced on a simple Desk that could radically change the whole world. Don't need the huge complexes of chemical plants, which also cost huge amount of money, and the result of obtaining desired reaction when will - is unknown. If all confirmed, Fleishman and Pons waited for a terrific future and humanity – a considerable cost reduction.
However, such completed statement of chemists was their mistake. And, who knows, perhaps the most important. The fact that the scientific community decided not to make any statements before the media about their inventions or discoveries before information about them will be published in scientific journals. Scientists, those who do immediately receive criticism, it's considered sort of bad form in the scientific community. According to the rules, made any discovery researcher tacitly obliged to notify the first that the scientific community will decide if this invention is true, is it worth it at all to recognize the opening. From a legal perspective it is considered an obligation of complete secrecy about the incident, which the pioneer must comply with the filing of its articles in the publication and prior to its publication. Nuclear physics in this respect is no exception.
Fleishman with my colleague sent this article in the scientific journal called Nature, and was one of the most reputable scientific publication in the world. All people associated with science, know that this journal will not publish unverified information, and even more won't print anybody. Martin Flashman already at that time was considered a respected scholar working in the field of electrochemistry, so the submitted article was supposed to come out soon. It just happened. Three months after the ill-fated conference publication was published, but the hype surrounding the opening is already inflamed. Perhaps that is why the chief editor of Nature John Maddox in the next monthly issue of the magazine published his doubts about the findings of Fleishman and Pons, and the fact that they had the energy of a nuclear reaction. In his article he wrote that chemists should be punished for his premature release. There they were told that real scientists would never have allowed the public to give publicity to their inventions, and thosewho do so may be regarded as mere adventurers.
Some time Later ponzu and Flashman was dealt another blow, which can be called devastating. A number of fellows of the American scientific institutions of the United States (mit and Caltech universities) held, that is, repeated the experiment of chemists, creating the same conditions and factors. However, the stated Plasmana the result is failed.
Since that time, there was a clear division of the entire scientific community into two camps. Supporters of one were all convinced that cold fusion – an invention, which is based on nothing. Others, however, still believe that cold fusion is possible, that the ill-fated chemists still made a discovery, which in the end can save all mankind by giving him inexhaustible energy source.
The fact that if everything happens the invention of a new method, which will be possible cold nuclear reactions of synthesis, and, accordingly, the value of this discovery will be invaluable for all people on a global scale, are attracted to this direction and more new scientists, some of which in fact can be considered fraud. Whole States have made significant efforts to build just one fusion power station, and spend huge amounts of money, and cold fusion can extract energy absolutely simple and fairly inexpensive ways. That is what attracts those wishing to profit by fraud, but also other persons with mental disorders. Among adherents of this method of obtaining energy, you can find those and others.
The History of cold fusion just had to get to the archive of the so-called pseudo-scientific stories. If you look at the method by which the energy of nuclear fusion, sober look, it can be understood that for connecting two atoms in one requires huge amounts of energy. She needed to overcome electrical resistance. In the construction of the International thermonuclear reactor, which will be located in the city of Pencil in France, it is planned to connect the two atoms that are the lightest existing in nature. As a result of this connection it is expected a positive release of energy. These two atoms-tritium and deuterium. They are the isotopes of hydrogen, so nuclear fusion of hydrogen becomes the basis. To do such a connection is unthinkable temperature – hundreds of millions of degrees. Of course, this would require and enormous pressure. For this reason, many scientists believe that cold controlled nuclear fusion impossible.
However, to justify this, consider the synthesis it should be noted that among his fans there are not only people with delusions and frauds, but also quite normal. After the speech of Fleishman and Pons, and the failure of their opening a number of scientists and scientific institutions have continued to go this direction. There has not been without Russian experts who have made similar attempts. And the interesting thing is that such experiments in some cases were successful, and some – failure.
However, in all the science strictly: if there is a discovery, and the experiment was successful, he is obliged to be repeated again with a positive result. If not, it will not be recognized by anyone. Moreover, the repetition of a successful experiment could not be done and the researchers themselves. In some cases, they do it, in other – no. Why this is happening, anybody could not explain, so far there is no scientifically based reason for such uneven.
All the above stories with Fleishmann and Pons there is another side to the coin, but rather, carefully concealed by the Western countries to be the truth. The fact that Stanley Pons was formerly a citizen of the USSR. In 1970 he was a member of the expert list, developing thermionic installation. Of course, Ponce was privy to many secrets of the Soviet state and emigrated to the United States have attempted to implement them.
A True pioneer, have achieved some success in cold fusion, was Ivan Stepanovich Filimonenko.
I. S. Filimonenko died in 2013. He was a scholar who almost stopped all development of nuclear power not only in his country but throughout the world. He nearly created a nuclear reactor cold fusion, which, unlike nuclear power plants would be safer and very cheap. In addition to this installation, a Soviet scientist has created a flying machine based on the principle of antigravity. Was known as a debunker of the hidden dangers that can bring humanity and nuclear power. The researcher worked in the defense industry of the USSR, he has been an academician and an expert in radiation safety. It is noteworthy that some works of academician, including cold fusion Filimonenko, still classified. IvanStepanovich was a direct participant in the creation of hydrogen, nuclear and neutron bombs, engaged in the development of nuclear reactors, designed to launch rockets into space.
In 1957 Ivan Filimonenko has developed a power plant cold fusion, by which the country would be able to save up to three hundred billion dollars a year, applying it in the energy sector. This invention is a scientist originally, was welcomed by government, as well as such well-known researchers, as Kurchatov, Keldysh, Korolev. To further develop and bring inventions Filimonenko to the ready state sanctioned at that time the Marshal Zhukov. Opening of Ivan Stepanovich was the source from which was to be removed by clean nuclear energy, and in addition, it would be possible to obtain protection from nuclear radiation and to eliminate the consequences of radioactive contamination.
It is Possible that after some time, the invention of Ivan Filimonenko would be produced in industrial scale, and humanity would get rid of many problems. But fate in the face of some people ordered otherwise. His colleagues Kurchatov and Korolev died, and Marshal Zhukov resigned. This was the beginning of the so-called behind-the-scenes of the game in academia. The result was a stop of all works Filimonenko, and in 1967 happened and his dismissal. Additional reason for this treatment was the honored scientist and his struggle to end the testing of nuclear weapons. Through his works, he constantly proved harmful both to nature and to people directly, the feed was stopped many projects to launch space rockets with nuclear reactors (any accident on such a missile, what happened in orbit, could face radioactive contamination of the entire Earth). Given the arms race that is gaining popularity at that time, momentum, academician Filimonenko became objectionable to some people. His experimental setup contrary to the recognized laws of nature, the scientist fired, expelled from the Communist party, deprived of all titles and generally mentally abnormal person.
Already in the late eighties - early nineties work of academician resume developed new experimental setup, however all of them until a positive result was not reported. Ivan Filimonenko proposed the idea of using his mobile units to eliminate the consequences of Chernobyl, but it was rejected. In the period from 1968 to 1989, Filimonenko, was excluded from any tests and work in the direction of cold fusion, and the development of diagrams and drawings, together with some of the Soviet research staff come abroad.
In the early 90-ies of the United States announced the successful test in which they were allegedly received nuclear energy through cold fusion. This led to the fact that of the legendary Soviet scientist again remembered his state. He was reinstated, but it did not help. By the time the collapse of the USSR, funding was limited, respectively, and the results were not. As described later, Ivan Stepanovich in the interview, seeing the incessant and however unsuccessful attempts of many scientists from around the world to get positive results in cold fusion, he realized that without it nobody will be able to bring the case to the end. And, indeed, he was telling the truth. From 1991 to 1993, American scientists, to get the installation Filimonenko, was not able to understand the principle of its operation, and even after a year and completely dismantled it. In 1996, influential people from the United States suggested Ivan Stepanovich hundred million dollars just to provide them with advice, explaining how the reactor of the cold nuclear synthesis, to which he refused.
Ivan Filimonenko, experiments have established that the decomposition of the so-called heavy water by electrolysis, it decomposes into oxygen and deuterium. The latter, in turn, is dissolved in the palladium cathode, which develops a nuclear fusion reaction. In the process of ongoing Filimonenko recorded the absence of radioactive wastes, and neutron radiation. The result of their experiments Ivan Stepanovich found that his nuclear fusion reactor emits an indefinite radiation, and this radiation greatly reduces the half-life of radioactive isotopes. That is neutralized radioactive contamination.
There is an opinion that Filimonenko at the time refused to replace the nuclear reactors of its installation in underground shelters, prepared for the Supreme leaders of the USSR in case of nuclear war. In those days, was raging, the Cuban missile crisis, and therefore was a very high possibility of its beginning. Stopped the ruling circles of the US and the USSR is that in these underground cities, the pollution from nuclear reactors still would have killed all life a few months later. Involved the reactor of the cold nuclear synthesis Filimonenko could create a safety zone from radioactive contamination, so if the academician agreed to this, the probability of nuclear war could be increasedseveral times. If this were true, then depriving him of all awards and subsequent repression find their logical justification.
I. S. Filimonenko was created thermionic hydrolytic power plant, which was absolutely clean. At the present time, no one was able to create such analogue, TAGAU. The essence of this installation and at the same time unlike other similar units was the fact that it is not used, nuclear reactors, and nuclear fusion, occurring at an average temperature of 1150 degrees. Therefore, this invention was called the installation of warm nuclear fusion. In the late eighties under the capital, in the city of Podolsk, was established 3 such installation. Soviet academician Filimonenko took a direct part in guiding the whole process. The capacity of each of TEGAU was 12.5 kW, as the main fuel used is heavy water. Just one kilogram of the reaction has released energy equivalent to that which can be obtained by burning two million pounds of petrol! One is talking about the volume and value of the inventions of the great scientist, that they develop a cold nuclear fusion reaction can bring the desired result.
Thus, currently not known for certain, whether the right to existence of cold fusion or not. It is possible that if not for the repression of real genius science Filimonenko, the world now would not be so, and life expectancy could increase dramatically. After all, back then Ivan Filimonenko said that radioactive radiation-the cause of ageing and impending death. It is the radiation, which is now literally everywhere, not to mention Metropolitan areas, violates the human chromosome. Maybe that's why biblical characters lived for thousands of years, since at the time, surely this is detrimental radiation did not exist.
Established academician Filimonenko installation in the future could save the planet from killing such contaminants, in addition to providing an inexhaustible source of cheap energy. Like it or not, time will tell, but it is a pity that this time could have come.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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