The organ of hearing: the anatomical structure and the functions of the main departments


2018-03-20 12:57:07




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Hearing can perceive a variety of sounds of the external world, to recognize their nature and location. With the ability to hear, man acquires the ability to speak. Hearing – a complex, finely tuned system of series-connected three departments. 

Outer ear 

The First section represents the ear is a complex shape cartilaginous plate, both sides covered with leather, and the external auditory canal.

on ear

The Main function of the ear - adoption of acoustic vibrations of air. From the hole in the ear starts with the external auditory canal-a tube with a length of 27 – 35 mm, penetrating deeper into the temporal bone of the skull. In the skin lining the ear canal are sulphur glands, the secret of which prevents the penetration of infection to the organ of hearing. Eardrum-a thin but strong membrane – separates the outer ear from the second division of the organ of hearing, middle ear. 

Middle ear 

In a recess of the temporal bone is the tympanic cavity, which constitutes the main part of the middle ear. Auditory (Eustachian) tube – a link between the middle ear and the nasopharynx. When swallowing movements open the Eustachian tube and allows air to penetrate into the middle ear, which balances pressure in tympanic cavity and external auditory canal. hearing organs

In the middle ear are movably connected by a miniature ear bones - complicated mechanism for the transmission of acoustic vibrations coming from the external auditory canal to the auditory cells in the inner ear. The first bone-the Malleus, the long end is attached to the eardrum. Second – an anvil connected to the third tiny bone, the stapes. The stapes is adjacent to the oval window, which begins with the inner ear. Bones, which includes the organ of hearing, is very small. For example, the mass of the stapes is only 2.5 mg. 


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Inner ear 

The Third division of the organ of hearing presents a threshold (bone miniature camera), semicircular canals, and special education-thin-walled bony tube coiled into a spiral. hearing and balance

This part of the auditory analyzer, reminiscent of a grape snail is called – auditory cochlea. 

The Organ of hearing has important anatomical education in order to maintain balance and to evaluate the body's position in space. The vestibule and semicircular canals filled with fluid and lined the inside very sensitive cells. When a person changes body position, shifting the liquid in the channels. The receptors record the displacement of the liquid and send a signal about this event in the brain. So the organ of hearing and balance allows the brain to learn about the movements of our body. 

Membrane inside the cochlea, consists of approximately 25 thousand very thin fibers of various lengths, each of which responds to sounds of a certain frequency and excites the endings of auditory nerve. Nervous excitement in the beginning is transmitted to the medulla oblongata, and then reaches the cerebral cortex. In the auditory centers of the brain irritation are analyzed and sistematizada, with the result that we hear of the filling the world sounds.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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