International tribunals, their activities and regulations

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2018-03-19 00:15:37

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The International tribunals in international law serve as the courts authorized to review special cases. Such institutions are formed and operate in accordance with international agreements or, as a rule, under the act of the UN security Council. Next, let's consider in detail what are the international tribunals. international tribunals

The international criminal court in the case of the leaders of Nazi Germany

It is one of two authorised agencies that fully achieved its goals. These international tribunals functioned after the Second world war. The first was formed in accordance with the agreement between the governments of Russia, France, Britain and America, signed on 8 August 1945. It was part of the proceedings and decision-making in relation to military and government leaders of Nazi Germany. The order of establishment, competence and jurisdiction were defined in the Charter annexed to the agreement.

Establishment

International courts and tribunals consist of representatives of different countries. Established in August 1945, the court consisted of four members and the same number of deputies - one from the countries participating in the agreement. In addition, each state was sent own chief Prosecutor and other officials. For the defendants it was supposed procedural guarantees, including the provision of defenders. Chief prosecutors of acting both independently and in conjunction with each other. international courts and tribunals

Powers

They are determined by the Statutes of the international tribunals. With regard to the first of the organization, in the terms of reference included consideration of:

  • Crimes against peace (preparation, planning, conduct of war in violation of agreements).
  • Military violations (actions contrary to the laws or customs of war).
  • Crimes against humanity (murder, exile, enslavement, extermination and other atrocities against civilians). the statutes of the international tribunals

Period of operation

The First Tribunal was formed to conduct an unlimited number of processes. As a permanent location was Berlin. It held its first meeting in early October 1945, the Work of the organization was limited in practice by the Nuremberg process. It was held from 20 November 1945 to 1 October 1946. Charter and bylaws determined the proceedings and meetings. As punishment for the perpetrators has assumed the death penalty or imprisonment. The sentence made the members of the Tribunal, was considered final. He was not subject to revision and implemented in accordance with the orders of the Control Council of Germany. This body was the only Institute authorised to change the decision and to consider petitions for pardon of convicts.

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After the rejection of the statements of the perpetrators, sentenced to death, the sentence was executed on the night of 16 October 1946. 11 December of the same year a resolution was adopted by the General Assembly, which was confirmed by international legal principles that are implemented in the Charter of this Tribunal and its judgment. international judicial tribunals

Tokyo process

The Second Tribunal was formed for the trial of Japanese criminals. Its membership includes representatives of eleven countries. The chief Prosecutor was appointed commander of the occupation forces in Japan. They became the representative of the United States. The rest of the state has appointed additional prosecutors. The process took place from 3 may 1946 to 12 November 1948. The Tribunal ended in a conviction.

Situation

In the Conventions on genocide and apartheid were fixed a potential opportunity to shape a new international judicial tribunals. For example, in one of these acts is determined that the accused in genocide must be considered in the country where it was made, by authorized authorities. They can be internal organizations, and international tribunals. Currently discussing the creation of a permanent body that would consider the crimes of the global scale.

The international tribunals discussed above, was limited spatial and temporal framework. If you will create a standing body, then it should not be such restrictions. international tribunals, the international criminal court

The jurisdiction of the permanent court

This problem in recent years was engaged in the Commission at the UN on behalf of the General Assembly. To date, recommendations regarding the establishment of the permanent authority on the basis of a multilateral Treaty in the form of the Statute (Charter). The powers of the court presumably must enter the consideration of cases concerning the citizens. However, in the future, provided the distribution of competence and on the state.

As with the previous international tribunals, a permanent body to deal with crimes against security of mankind and peace and other similar acts that are included in the category "transnational". From this it follows that the jurisdiction of the court should contact the relevant global Conventions.

According to some experts, the prevailing view in the question of competence should be considered that, in accordance with which the powers of the authority should be limited to consideration of such acts as genocide, aggression, crimes against humanity and security of the civilian population. The only acceptable recognizes the inclusion in the Charter of the clear wording of acts and punishments for each of them. The main sanctions should include imprisonment for a specific term or for life. The question concerning the application of the death penalty remains controversial today. international tribunals

Structure

The Previous international tribunals consisted of representatives of the countries participating in the respective agreements. The composition of the courts were different. In the case of forming a permanent organ, it presumably will include the Chairperson and the Vice-presidency. It would serve both administrative and judicial functions. As for the immediate consideration of cases and pronouncement of sentences, the task is to be assigned to the appropriate chamber. Presumably, the work will be done in two ways:

  1. An Independent investigation. It will be held on behalf of the world community in their respective countries.
  2. Investigation in the framework by the competent national authorities.

Yugoslav process

In 1993, may 25, the UN security Council adopted the resolution. It established the international Tribunal for the prosecution of perpetrators of violations of humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia. On the territory of this country did fighting break out, become tragic for the population. In the formation of the court's Statute was approved. It defines the jurisdiction of the authority regarding persons who commit violations of the provisions of the Geneva conventions and other norms. The number of such acts - deliberately inflicting suffering or killing, inhuman treatment and torture, the taking of citizens as hostages, unlawful deportation, the use of special weapons, genocide and so on. international tribunals in international law

Organization

In this Tribunal on 11 independent judges. They are sent by the States and elected by the General Assembly for 4 years. The list gives the UN Security Council. As with the previous international tribunals, in this instance, the Prosecutor is also present. In may 1997, was elected the new composition. In the structure of the Tribunal there are 2 court 1 appeals chamber. In the first three runs, and the second five commissioners. the company Is located in the Hague. The Charter regulated the procedure of consideration of cases, drafting indictments. It also established the right of suspects and accused, including protection.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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