Russia is the largest country on the globe. Its area reaches 17,1 million square meters. There is a state on the Eurasian continent. Russia has a greater length from West to East, so in the regions there is a significant difference in time.
Customs, economic and other borders of Russia outside the former USSR, which in itself is a unique phenomenon. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all CIS countries are faced with a serious problem. On the one hand the inconsistency of legislative and financial systems forced them to close the economic space, but the new boundary line of States did not coincide with ethnic and cultural borders, and the society did not want to accept imposed border restrictions, and most importantly, Russia has not been able in such a short period to demarcate and build engineering structures. Another big problem was the establishment of customs points.
The borders of Russia reaches 60 thousand kilometers, 40 thousand km are sea borders. Economic space of the country is 370 kilometers from the coastal zone. There may be courts of other States to extract natural resources. The Western and southern borders of the Russian Federation - in the main land, North and East mainly by sea. What state border of Russia have a greater length, due to the huge size of its territory and the uneven shape of the lines of the seashores of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic oceans, which washes it on three sides.
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On the West and East of the country has land borders have several characteristic differences. In pre-revolutionary Russia, they were marked by natural boundaries. As the state expanded, it was necessary to fix the boundaries of the seas and the land. In this sparsely populated areas, for greater awareness, they should be clearly labelled – it could be a mountain range, river and so on. But the nature of the terrain occurs mainly on the Eastern side of the southern border.
Contemporary lines, the Western and South-Western borders of Russia was the result of the partition of individual entities in the country. For the most part it's administrative borders that were previously internal. They were almost not related to natural objects. Thus was formed the Russian border with Poland and Finland.
The Land border of Russia also have the largest. After the Soviet Union collapsed, the number of neighbors remains the same. Their only fourteen. With Japan and the USA Russia has the only sea borders. But during Soviet times, the country is bordered only eight States, the rest of the lines between States were considered to be internal and was of conditional nature. In the North-West of the Russian border in contact with Finland and Norway.
The status of the state has officially received the Russian border with Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. Along the Western and southwestern borders are Ukraine and Belarus. The southern part of the country bordered by Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, republics of Tuva, Altai, Buryatia. In the extreme South-East Primorsky region of Russia borders with the DPRK. The length of the line border is only 17 km away.
Marine border with Russia in the North and East of the country is 12 miles from the coastline. By sea of the Russian Federation has borders with 12 countries. The Northern border through the waters of the Arctic ocean – the sea and the Kara, Laptev, Barents, East Siberian and Chukchi. Within the Arctic ocean, from the Russian coast to the North pole, lies the Arctic. It is limited conditional lines from the West of the Rybachy Peninsula and East of the island of Ratmanov to the North pole. Polar possession – is a relative concept, and the territorial waters of this sector do not belong to Russia, you can only talk about the affiliation of the waters of the Arctic waters.
Marine border with Russia in its Eastern part runs along the waters of the seas of the Pacific. From this side of the country's closest neighbors are the US and Japan. With Japan, the Russian Federation borders in La Perouse Strait and in the Bering Strait - with the United States (between the Islands of Ratmanov, who is Russian, and krusen owned by the States). Between the Chukotka Peninsula, Alaska, Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands is the Bering sea. Between the peninsulas of Kamchatka, Islands of Hokkaido, Kuril and Sakhalin is the sea of Okhotsk.
The Southern coast of Sakhalin and Primorsky Krai is washed by Japanese sea. All the seas of the Far East with which Russia has a sea border, partly freeze. And the sea of Okhotsk, even given the fact that part of it lying South of the parallel, is most severe in this regard. In its North-Western part of the duration of the ice period is about 280 days a year. Because of the large extent of the seas on the East line of Russia from North to South, the climatic conditions in the countrysignificantly different.
In the summer in the sea of Japan come typhoons, which cause great destruction. On the Pacific coast in its seismically active zones occur catastrophic tsunamis induced by coastal and submarine earthquakes.
The Sea borders of Russia and the USA are now marked, but before there was a border problem. The Russian Empire in 1867, sold Alaska for seven million dollars. There are certain difficulties in determining the borders of States in the Bering Strait. There are problems in Russia and Japan, disputing the Islands of the lesser Kuril Islands, whose total area is 8548,96 sq km Dispute arose about the state of the water area and the territory of the Russian Federation with an area of three hundred thousand square kilometers, including the economic zone of the sea and Islands, which is rich in seafood and fish, and offshore area that has oil.
In 1855 the contract was concluded, under which the Islands of the lesser Kuril ridge has been preserved in Japan. In 1875, moving to Japan all of the Kuril Islands. In 1905 at the end of the Russo-Japanese war was concluded Portcase the Treaty, Russia ceded to Japan the southern Sakhalin. In 1945, when Japan signed the act of unconditional surrender of the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands became part of the Soviet Union, but their nationality was not specified and in the agreement of 1951 (San Francisco). The Japanese side claimed that the South Kuril Islands are part of Japan, and they have no relation to the Treaty of 1875, as they are not part of the Kuril Islands and belong to the Japanese Islands, and because the operation of a Treaty signed in San Francisco, does not apply to them.
The Western sea border of Russia, connect the country with many States of Europe. It passes under the waters of the Baltic sea, which refers to the waters of the Atlantic ocean and forms off the coast of Russia bays. They are placed in Russian ports. In the Gulf of Finland is located Northern capital of Russia – St. Petersburg – and Vyborg. On a tributary of the Vistula lagoon the town of Prelog is located in Kaliningrad. Large Novolodski the port is being built at the mouth of the Luga river. The Baltic sea does not freeze just off the coast of the Kaliningrad region. This sea border of Russia on the map binds the country (via sea) from such countries as Poland, Germany and Sweden.
The South-Western part of Russia is washed by the Azov, Caspian and Black seas. Sea borders the Black sea gives Russia access to the Mediterranean. On the shores of the Tsemess Bay is the port of Novorossiysk. In the Taganrog Bay – the port of Taganrog. In the city of Sevastopol is one of the best coves. The Azov and Black seas are of great importance to transport links of Russia with the countries of Foreign Europe and the Mediterranean. Also the sea border of the Russian Federation come into contact with Georgia and Ukraine. In the South the waters of the Caspian sea is the border with Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.
Therefore, the boundaries of the Russian Federation to a greater extent pass on natural boundaries: mountains, seas and rivers. Because some of them complicated international contacts (high mountains, glaciers to the sea and so on). Others, on the contrary, favourable to cooperation with its neighbors and allow you to lay river and land on the international road, to create an economic space.
In the Northern part of the extreme point is Cape Chelyuskin, which is located on the Taimyr Peninsula. Extreme point of the island is the toe Wings, which is located on one of the Islands of the archipelago of Franz Joseph – Rudolf. The southernmost point is the crest of the Caucasian ridge, West – the limb of the spit of the Baltic sea, Eastern – Cape Dezhnev on the Chukotka Peninsula.
Most of the country is in temperate latitudes, but the Northern part is located in the harsh Arctic conditions. The territory of Russia is rich in natural resources that are available in large quantities. The country occupies a leading place in the world in size and area of the land resources. The area of the Russian forests reaches seven hundred million acres.
The Huge size of the country is very important from an economic point of view and defense. The territory of the Russian Federation has the largest extent of the plain on the planet. This is the West Siberian and Russian (East European) plain. In the Northern area of the country affected by air masses of the Arctic ocean. The territory of Russia is rich in various minerals and minerals. Here is concentrated about 40% of the world reserves of iron ores. The major area fields and rich reserves of copper ore is considered to be the Urals and the Ural region. Here, in the middle Urals there are deposits of precious stones such as emerald, ruby, amethyst. And another interesting feature of the country is that it is located in all geographic zones of the Northern hemisphere, with the exception of the tropics.
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