Strain gauge: types, principle of operation and device


2018-03-17 13:35:16




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In various modern spheres of human activity there is a need of different control structures by measuring parameters and the current state of the given element. Indispensable helpers in this case are strain gauge sensors.

Leading technology are increasingly using electronic load cells, which are the most widespread strain of the model. Strain gage elements to measure weight, force, pressure, movement, etc.

Widely used load cells for scales, industrial machines, different engines, are used in the construction field and many other areas.


In various industrial sectors applies a huge variety of strain gauge transducers. The following types of devices:

  • Tools measure the force – sensors scan parameters change effort and the load;
  • Devices for measuring the projection of the acceleration – accelerometers;
  • Measuring tools moving of test materials;
  • Strain gauge devices pressure – characterized by the control of parameters of pressure of the different elements in different environments;
  • Strain gauge torque converters.
    load cell weight

For scales strain gauges are the most typical the feature. Depending on the application structure of the cargo receiving surface sensors are used the following types:

  • Appliances cantilever type;
  • Measuring device in the form of the Latin letter S;
  • Strain gauges in the form of puck;
  • Measuring devices resembling the shape of a barrel.

There is a classification of measuring load cells, depending on the design features – element sensitivity. Source material is defined these models:

  • Wire – are in the form of wire, two-component material is nichrome, elemental connection resistant, thermostable alloy Constantan;
  • Strain gauges, foil – uses thin strips of foil;
  • Solid-state sensors – are made of chemical elements like silicon, Galiy, germanium.

Principle of operation

The principle of the device used centerfest. Its essence is to change the working counter and semi - conductor elements during expansion or contraction – mechanical deformation.


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load cell

Load cells represent a constructive set of lode cell, which has a communication point on the panel. The latter is connected with the material to be measured. Functional diagram of the actuation strain gauge is that there is an influence on the element sensitivity. The connection of the power source is carried out using elektroauto who have contact with the sensitive plate.

Contact locations characterized by the presence of DC voltage. The load cell takes the item through special underlay. The mass of the material interrupts the circuit due to the deformation of the distortion. The resulting process transformered into electric current signal.

Strain-gauge pressure sensor is often used with tensorielle AC. This system is made of amplitude modulation of the voltage which is supplied directly to the transducer sensors.

Device sensors

Strain gauge measurement tool consists of:

  • Elastic element;
  • Lode cell;
  • Housing;
  • Sealed connector.

Under the elastic element refers to the body that receives the load. Mostly made from special steel, which have already undergone heat treatment. This has an impact on obtaining stable readings. Form fabrication is presented in the form of a rod, ring or the console. The core design is more popular and widespread.

The lode cell – chicken wire or metal foil resistor node, which is attached to the rod. This detail of the strain gauge changes its resistance to deformation rod, deformation and distortion, in turn, proportional to the load.

The body of the measuring device prevents the internal structure from all kinds of mechanical damage, including from the negative influences of the environment. The housing complies with the international standard and has various forms.

A Sealed connector is needed for communication with additional sensor equipment (scales, amplifiers, etc.) via cable. There are a variety of circuit connections. Features of some load cells provide a replacement cable.

sensor web

Sensors measure the force

Strain gauge force sensors have a different common name – dynamometers. These measuring instruments are an integral part of the weighing equipment. Their necessity can hardly be overestimated, as they operate in all technological automated systems of any production. They have found application in agriculture, medicine, metallurgy, automotive industry, etc.

In this method of measurement takes a lot of manipulation, and in line with this, there are several types of strain gauges:

  • Tactile – are divided into converters, effort, slippage and touch;
  • Resistive – used by the lode cell and have a linear signal output;
  • Piezoresonance – characterized by direct and reverse effect which provides a sensor-resonator;
  • Piezoelectric – resistant to ambient temperatures, high strength, used direct piezoelectric effect;
  • Magnetic – operate on the phenomenon of magnetostriction, changing the geometry of the dimensions in a magnetic field;
  • Capacitive-measurement means of the parametric type is the condenser.
    load cell

Sensors measuring weight

Strain gauge load cells consist of three elements:

  1. Lode cell.
  2. Beam bending.
  3. Cable.

Sensors are used in weighing equipment for industrial use and personal use. The more popular the data measurement means in the area of manufacturing and are of such types:

  • Console device-aluminum or steel billet. Steel can be made in the form of barrels or washers possess high integrity;
  • Beam device – measure the load on the platform and bridge structures.
    load cell

The Advantages of load cells

They are as follows:

  • Precision measurements of parameters.
  • Do Not allow the distortion of information.
  • Compatible with measured stress.
  • Compact size.

The only Disadvantage is the loss of sensitivity of the operating elements at the critical temperature.


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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