Bass-evil Durka technique was proposed in the 60-ies of the last century, but still finds many supporters and is actively used. About it and we will tell today. It's safe to say that this method (questionnaire bass-evil Durka) – one of the most popular these days that is used in foreign psychology for the study of aggression. Before I talk about it, we should define the very notion of aggression. What are the mechanisms of its origin, its significance for man? Let's face it.
Scientists believe that the use of aggression – one of the most popular solutions to problems that arise in humans in frosterus (difficult) situations. These difficult situations are causing people mental tension, with which they must cope.
The Aggressive actions can be a means to achieve a certain important goal. They can also be a way to replace the satisfaction of any blocked needs, mental discharge. Also the aggressive actions applied to self-affirmation and self-realization.
For a Long time, the psychological approach to aggression and aggressiveness was defined as theories, which viewed it as a consequence of frustration (Rosenzweig, Dollard), and the concept of attraction. A number of publications on this subject appeared in the late 50-ies of the last century. These works led to an influx of theoretical and experimental works on this topic, which include the questionnaire bass-evil Durka.
This Technique not only of those that are used nowadays. Today there are many theories of aggression. The most famous of them – K. Lorenz and Freud. Each of the theories has their own perspective on aggression and their attitude to it. Due to this, they can find commonalities and divided into 4 main categories. Will talk briefly about each of them.
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Aggression can be seen as innate a Deposit or promise. That is, it is inherent in us from birth form of behavior, operating on the instinctive level. Adherents of the theories relating to this category, aggression is considered as a property of the person genetically programmed. It is already present and expressed throughout life. Aggression, according to the adherents of these theories can not be eradicated. At best you can only reduce its impact.
Other theories consider its manifestations as cognitive and emotional processes. This conclusion is based on the belief that each of us can control the aggression on the basis of acquired life experience skills. In order to do this, you must be able to present a potential danger, and correctly assess certain threats.
Aggression may be understood as the need generated by external factors and stimuli. From this point of view it is regarded as a need, implemented directly under the influence of certain external stimuli. "Frustration theory of aggression" is the basis of this view. It was proposed by the American anthropologist and psychologist John Dollard. According to this theory, frustration inevitably leads to aggression in one or another of its forms, and the latter, in turn, is always the result of frustration.
Another approach to aggression – consider it as a relevant expression of social experience. That is a model of social behavior acquired in the course of development. Aggressive reactions occur in a person after he found himself in a similar situation or passively watched it all from the outside. It is the result of accumulation and subsequent use of its results.
After Analyzing the most popular views on the concept of "aggression", we can say that it is to be understood as motivated destructive behavior contrary to the rules and norms of human existence in society. This behavior causes harm to inanimate or animate targets. It causes them physical harm, or may cause a state of fear, tension, depression, negative feelings, i.e. mental discomfort.
Aggressiveness – this is a special quality, personality trait, which is characterized by destructive tendencies, mainly in the field of subject-object relations. Destructive component activity is probably necessary for people in creative activities. Because the needs of individual development formed the ability to the destruction and elimination of obstacles to overcome just counteracting this process.
Researchers came to the conclusion that aggressiveness has quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Like any other property, the severity of it can vary from almost complete absence to a maximum level of development. A certain degree should be available to every person. The lack of aggressiveness leads toconformity, statements, passivity, etc. on the Contrary, excessive development may characterize the personality as a whole as a conflict that does not have the capacity for conscious cooperation.
The Aggression itself does not make a person deliberately dangerous subject. Indeed, on the one hand, the link between aggression and aggressiveness, can not be called tough. They can be caused by various reasons. On the other hand, the act of aggression itself may not make unapproved and deliberately dangerous forms.
Aggressiveness in worldly consciousness – a synonym of such concepts as "malicious activity." However, destructive behavior in itself does not have the "malice". Makes it so the motive of the activity, and values for the achievement of which unfolds the activity. Practical action externally may be similar, but the motivational components in this case are just the opposite.
Aggression can be divided, accordingly, into 2 main types. First – aggression motivation as well as self-worth. The second type of aggression – it is instrumental, which is considered as a tool. This implies that they both can be held under control of our consciousness and without it. In addition, both of these types are associated with emotional experiences such as hostility and anger.
Psychologists-practitioners most interested in motivational aggression that is considered as a manifestation of realization of the destructive tendencies inherent in the individual. If to determine the level of these trends, there is an opportunity with high accuracy to predict the probability of a person open motivational aggression. One of these diagnostic procedures is the questionnaire bass-evil Durka. The method of interest to us was developed in 1957 by American researchers, by the names which are named.
In foreign studies this questionnaire is widespread. They confirmed its high reliability and validity. And in the domestic works used the questionnaire bass-evil Durka. This technique was used, in particular, S. N. Enikolopov in 1989. However, the domestic sample data on its standardization is not specified.
Scientists say that the method bass-evil Durka for the diagnosis of aggression in a situation examination is not protected from certain motivational distortion. The answer may depend, for example, from the installation to the individual social desirability. In addition, the accuracy of the results depends also on the degree of trust in relations of the psychologist and the subject, if you are using the methods bass-evil Durka for the diagnosis of aggression. Therefore, the obtained results need to be checked for reliability by retesting or other methods. The use of this questionnaire in work with schoolchildren (from 6 th grade and above) and with teachers was quite diagnostical and constructive for further remedial work. Currently widely used methods bass-evil Durka. The purpose of its application we reviewed, it is now necessary to determine the basic provisions.
A. bass, rebounding from the development of their predecessors, distinguished between the concepts of hostility and aggression. The first he defined as a reaction that involves negative evaluations of events and people, negative feelings. The methodology for the study of aggression bass-darki involves the differentiation of the various manifestations of hostility and aggression. The types of reactions that scientists have identified at the same time, following.
1. Physical aggression that is used against another person of physical force.
2. Indirect, roundabout way directed to another person, or not directed at anyone.
3. Irritation, that is ready at the slightest excitement to show negative feelings. It can be defined as rudeness, irascibility.
4. Negativism, representing the opposition manner in behavior. It can manifest itself in different ways, from passive resistance to fight against existing laws and customs.
5. Resentment, that is, envy or hatred towards others for certain actions, fictional or real.
6. Suspiciousness, which may range from caution and distrust of the people to the belief that they cause or intend to cause harm.
7. Another type of reaction – verbal aggression. It is an expression of negative feelings as through verbal responses (threats, cursing), and through the form (squeal, cry).
8. Guilt is a possible belief that it is bad that goes wrong. This includes remorse, feel them.
Concluding the description of the method bass-evil Durka, note that the questionnaire includes 75 claims. To them the subject must answer either "Yes" or "no". On the basis of this evaluated degree of aggressiveness of man. We now turn to the method of interpretation of the obtained results.
Processingmethods bass-evil Durka is not a problem. The questions are formulated so that they relate only to one form of aggression. In addition, the results of the methods bass-evil Durka very easy to interpret because the impact of public approval or other response is maximally weakened.
The Norm of aggressiveness, according to Rogov E. I., - the value of its index, which is equal to 21 ± 4. As for hostility, it should be between 6.5-7 ±3. The scheme of Hwang A. A. is somewhat more complicated, but it does not greatly complicates this method of study of aggression as the method bass-evil Durka. Interpretation of the results by Hwang, A. A., the following. Raw scores on each individual scale must be multiplied by the ratio. Its purpose – to bring to one hundred points, the maximum value of the parameters at each scale, the method bass-evil Durka for the diagnosis of aggression.
Interpretation, however, is not entirely unambiguous. Using this method, you need to understand that aggressiveness is a personality trait, as well as aggression, understood as an act of behavior to perform only part of the psychological analysis of all motivational-requirement sphere of the person. Otherwise the results may be inaccurate. That is why this method (questionnaire bass-evil Durka) is applied together with other, such as projective techniques (e.g., Luscher) and personality tests of different mental States (Spielberg, Cattell).
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