Among the famous and important Soviet poets occupies a special place Zhigulin Anatoliy Vladimirovich. A short biography of this literary figure includes quite a lot of sad and tragic events, but his literary legacy worthy of study and recognition.
Anatoly was born in January 1930 in the village of Podgornoye (voronezj). His father was a postal employee named Vladimir, a native of the peasants. For a long time he was tormented by a running tuberculosis (active tuberculosis). For this reason, the future poet Anatoly Zhigulin, like his brother and sister, often talked with mother Eugene Mitrofanovna. Doing their three children alone and doing almost all the chores, she found time to sing songs, read poetry and instill in the children a love of poetry.
Being an educated woman with aristocratic roots, Eugene Mitrofanovna was able to educate the future poet with a regard to truth, love of country, and taught to understand beauty, to see the diversity of the Russian language. Great-grandfather of the mother of Anatolia was during the Patriotic war of 1812, the poet-Decembrist Vladimir Fedoseevich Raevsky (he was a member of the radical wing Ryleev).
When Anatolia was seven years old, his family moved to the estate of the grandfather. In this house there was a surviving family library. In its composition was considered a very valuable heirloom albums that were filled by several generations of Rayevskys. However, during the Second world war, the bombing, the house still burned. Despite the fact that all family members survived, they were in for a separation and the hardships of war.
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Eight months of Voronezh was within the front zone. Anatoly Zhigulin, a brief biography which describes this period as extremely difficult for the whole family was exhausted from hunger, destitution and was forced to survive in a dilapidated city. Under the influence of the impressions which the poet would later write more than one poem.
Growing up Anatoly accompanied the rise of the Stalinist terror. Under the extermination or imprisonment in the dungeons of the Cheka, got a member of another branch of the family Rayevskys (Rostov). For this reason, Anatoly Zhigulin long time did not know about his noble origin and freedom-loving ancestors. Despite the caution and stealth of the parents, the boy found out the truth, studying the glorious deeds of their relatives in family albums from the home library.
Literary talent in Anatolia is already evident during the visit of the senior classes of the school. From writing school essays in verse, by the spring of 1949, Anatoly Zhigulin is gaining momentum and is published in the newspaper. At that time he was only 19 years old, and on leaving school the young man had planned to study at the forestry Institute. The choice of school was made for several reasons. In the first place Anatolia was required to stay at home and look after younger brother and sister. Second, the young man was no stranger to the love of technology and nature.
At the same time, an active political activity, which developed in the ranks of the Communist party of the youth of Anatoly Zhigulin. The biography of the poet includes his acquaintance with the founder of the party Boris by Sitting.
As a son of an official of the Voronezh regional party Committee, Boris once experienced a huge shock at the sight of the peasants and farmers who lived in rural areas. Hunger and unbearable living conditions of these people did not fit into the picture that is painted by the propagandists in the city. Deciding on an independent search of the truth, Boris took up the study of the history of the revolution and together with a few close friends realized how much was warped and perverted Leninism in the hands of Stalin. The creation of OPM in 1947 was the first step Boris on the way to the return of the party of Lenin of course. The basic principle was the use of peaceful methods. However, the program of the PCM contained a secret clause providing for the elimination of Stalin's violent.
Anatoly Zhigulin was among the sixty members of this konservirovannoy organization, when in 1949 he was made the first arrests of members of the movement. Despite the fact that to attract new members have used a multi-stage scheme, students, and more recently, schoolchildren, exposed.
Throughout all nine months, while there was an investigative process, those arrested were subjected to numerous lengthy interrogations. They often lasted several hours and was accompanied by violence.
Behind the bars were not all members of the movement, measures of secrecy has protected almost half their party, but the others were severely punished for their beliefs. Among them was Anatoly Zhigulin, whose biography is "decorated" of the sentence to ten years in strict-regime camps. During the time spent in the chamber before the verdict, then, on the Taishet camps on the Kolyma writer and poet has collected a wealth of material that served as the basis for many of his works. The most well-known tale of “Black rock” describing the life and experiences of a political prisoner. Many poems also, one way or another, tell us about those hard times for Anatolia.
During detention Anatoly did hard work in the logging and in prison. It was during his stay at the Kolyma ended “Bitch wars” and Stalin died.
Fortunately, Anatoly Zhigulin remained in prison for ten years - four years after his arrest, he was released under the terms of the Amnesty, and after two years fully rehabilitated.
Anatoly returns to the interrupted training and by 1960, finishes forestry Institute. In parallel with his studies he managed to publish in Voronezh a small collection of poems, which was called “Lights of my city" (1956). The following book was published in Moscow in 1963, it was called “Rails” and also included exclusively poetry. Then Anatoly became a student of the Higher literary courses and later settled permanently in Moscow.
A year later, in 1964, in Voronezh a small edition (three thousand copies) again published the book of poems, which were written by Anatoly Zhigulin. A short biography for kids describes this edition as very successful, as it was enthusiastically greeted by press and public.
In the course of his literary career, the poet often spoke with prominent figures of the time. A significant influence on his work had a familiarity with the poet A. Tvardovsky in 1961. Together with works by Koltsov, Esenin and Klyuev it has played an important role in the formation of the poetic language and literary style zhigulina.
For several years, Twardowski helps young Anatolia in the publication of poetry collections and has made considerable efforts to promote his books.
This period saw the book of poems in Voronezh and Moscow, as “Memory”, “the Chosen one lyrics», «Polar flowers”. Being at the peak of popularity, the poet produces one collection after another, and in the late 1980s was a cycle of poems called poet ‘Burnt notebook”.
As is known, the poet enters into the Union of Soviet writers and Literary Institute. Gorky in Moscow for many years and trusted him to conduct poetry workshops.
Life in the camps is left in the soul a kind of nature poet an indelible mark. Emotional trauma turned him into a cynic, however, affected mental balance. Living outside the camp walls, Anatoly Zhigulin (biography for children talks about it only in passing) had to be treated in psychiatric institutions.
Print a political prisoner are also laid on many of the works of the poet. In some poems Anatoly describes in detail the injustice and horror of his imprisonment. Anatoly Zhigulin, a photo of which is above, not only tried to avoid the camp, but also insisted on its development. According to his firm belief, sincere account of what he saw and tested was his main task. The poet's position was so strong that he did not recognize compromises, even in stagnant times.
This piece was the description of the history of life Anatoly Zhigulin. It was published in 1988 in the journal “Banner” and were very popular, causing a considerable stir in the community.
In the book, the poet spoke about his childhood and youth, as well as about family members and friends. The plot revolves around the story of the creation of the Communist party of youth, her brief political activity, ideas and aspirations of the members of the movement and their tragic fate.
Without excessive exaggeration or intentional exaggerating Zhigulin ...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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