There are two methods of establishing prices. It depends on the type of economic system in which the functioning of the state. Policy pricing is typical for countries with a planned economy. In this case, the market has almost no impact on the environment. Prices can be determined even before the release of products. The situation is different when market way. In this case prices will be determined not in the company, and under the influence of supply and demand in the sale of products on the market. More about this talk in today's article.
The State can directly or indirectly influence market conditions. Economic theories see the role of government in management of national economy in different ways. Free pricing – the basis of the market economic system. It justified all the classic economic theory. It is believed that the need for state intervention in economic processes for the first time convincingly proved John Maynard Keynes. Fully prescriptive pricing – it is the prerogative of the planned economy. In this case, the cost of production is determined at the manufacturing stage or even earlier. Can be set limits of prices, rate of return, the coefficients of possible changes. Today in many countries with market economy use certain interventions in the environment sector.
The Attitude to the role of the state radically changed several times throughout recorded history. At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries during the birth of modern market relations the dominant doctrine was mercantilism. It was believed that the national economy cannot operate effectively without state intervention. However, after two hundred years, replaced this doctrine came the idea of the so-called economic liberalism. Its apologists were Adam Smith and David Ricardo. They stated that the market – a self-regulating system, policy pricing her unnecessarily. It is based on the ‘invisible hand" of the personal interests of enrichment.
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However, the First world war and the ensuing Great depression forced scientists to reconsider their views on pricing. Already in the 1930s there were specific laws that expanded the scope of state intervention in the national economy. Policy pricing in certain product categories has become a common phenomenon.
After the great depression, many developed countries have abandoned the idea of market self-regulation and have begun to intervene in economic processes. Keynes argued the need to increase fiscal spending and lower interest rates during recessions. Demand creates supply, and not Vice versa, as is claimed classics. Neokeynesians favour market and policy pricing in symbiosis. They adapted some of the ideas of the classics and believe that state intervention is necessary only in the short term. This is due to the fact that the situation may not quickly adjust to “cure” the economy from the negative effects of declining business activity. However, neokeynesians believe that in the long term, the market is self-regulating system.
There are two methods of state regulation of prices: direct (policy) and indirect (economic). The first type includes:
The Declaration of the price represents the process of revising the state-regulated prices. To do this, you must apply to the special organs of the state with the economic justification for the request.
To economic methods of regulation include subsidies, compensation of costs of producers, lending at subsidized rates, provision of tax holidays. All these measures allow to reduce the market value of products.
We have already dealt with the fact that such pricing policy. The market economy is not recognized its necessity. However, nobody is in a hurry to completely abandon its use. The state can lay down rules for setting prices in the form of regulations. They describe the principles, methodology and standards. It is believed that 10-30 % of the products prices are set by a Directive. But the state often does not stop there. In developed countries, widespread indirect intervention in pricing. All this is motivated by the need to achieve social outcomes, i.e. benefits for the whole society.
Many believe that a policy of pricing – it is a command economy. But in fact, today many States actively intervene in economic processes. It is believed that in the long run the market has the ability to self-regulation, and in the short – you have the additional influence of the Central Bank and the government. It is recognized that establishing maximum or minimum prices for products can lead to the fact that this index ceases to be objective. However, no one argues with the fact that sometimes the market mechanism needs to be adjusted.
The pricing Process in Russia has changed frequently over time. Important milestones in its history include:
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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