Steppe fires. Methods of extinguishing fires

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2018-03-18 12:50:59

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The Fires are high-risk for the ecosystem as a whole and every living organism living in it. Currently, there are many types of uncontrolled fires. For example, industrial, field, forest, peat, steppe fires, in buildings and on various vehicles. This article will detail some of the above groups.Prairie fires

Wildfires

This fire represents the emergence of one or several foci, which rather quickly spread to large areas. Such natural disasters have a high propagation velocity, reaching at certain points in 30 km/h. This factor is due to the large number of dry vegetation, matured grains and other flammable materials. Typically, wildfires pose a great danger not only for humans but also for farm animals. The fire that rises from all sides, has a strong psychological pressure. Thereby it can provoke a mass panic, which often leads to numerous victims.Main causes of fires

The Main causes of the fires

As mentioned earlier, even a small fire can within a fairly short period to lead to disaster. Consequently, such natural disasters should be eliminated as quickly as possible in order to minimize the amount of damages. However, before you learn the sequence of actions to extinguish the detected fire, you must find out the main causes of fires. As a rule, often the fire in the steppe or forest may receive as a result of careless human action. For example, it may be unextinguished cigarette left unattended bonfire, childish pranks and other anthropogenic factors. In addition, forest and steppe fires can occur as a result of atmospheric phenomena such as lightning discharges. However, should not be excluded from the list, and the next factor. Steppe and peat fires can result from spontaneous combustion of dead wood in the hot summer time.Natural disaster

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Firefighting

Wildfires have several important, but, unfortunately, the negative features. One of them can be considered transient processes. The time factor plays a huge role, because, as mentioned earlier, the speed of steppe fires spread is quite large. This means that since the discovery of fire and before the adoption of any measures for its suppression should be spent minimum time. The specific status in such events is the organization and preparation of funds for elimination of fire.

Account related factors

In the event of such emergencies it is important to consider not only ways of fighting fires, but also all sorts of auxiliary means. For example, consider the location of the fire. Knowing the terrain, you can effectively use them to prevent further spread of fire. As these obstacles there may be various boundaries, firebreaks, roads. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the degree of combustibility of different materials surrounding the fire.

Forest and steppe fires

Main stages

Taken together, all measures on liquidation of steppe fires can be divided into a few major categories. The first of these are the so-called intelligence activities. The second - localization of the fire to the third fire. In the latter category, in turn, referred caroliana the danger zone. We will consider each of the stages in more detail.

Exploration

Steppe fires can be detected from the ground or from the air. As a rule, for such purpose there are special observation points and aircraft patrols. Traditionally, intelligence activities consist of identifying the type of fire, his power. It should be remembered that these parameters are investigated at the edge of the fire, as well as in its separate parts at different points in time. In addition, there is a periodic clarification of the boundaries of the affected parcel by the flames. Based on the results obtained, the authorities are forecast, which indicates the possible spread of fire, strength and the combustion characteristic within a predetermined time. Therefore, on the basis of obtained data it is possible to form a plan of the stop and subsequent liquidation of ignition. Also determines the ways and techniques through which will be carried out such activities.

Steppe and peat fires

Localization

Perhaps the most laborious and complex step in extinguishing the fire. Often consists of two phases. First preventing further spread of fire. This is achieved through direct and immediate impact on the edge of the flame. The second phase, in turn, is laying the so-called barriers. As such means there may be the sand, dug ditches, and so on. In addition, it is necessary to process the peripheral regions of the fire in order to prevent the possibility of the resumption of the spread of fire. It is important to remember that under the definition of "local fire" refers to the round which has a protective strip, or other means, providing full confidence that the flame can flare up again.

Elimination

The So-called dosushivanie fire represents the elimination of fires that could remain in the occupied fire areas. It is important to eliminate all, even the smallest and inconspicuous petals of flame.

Caroliana fires

Such activities are designed to prevent the resumption of combustion. The steps to do this are in periodic or continuous (depending on the complexity of the fire) patrol the affected fire areas. Special attention should be paid to the so-called edge and lane localization. The duration of this stage must be determined on the basis of forecasted and real weather conditions.

peat Forest steppe fires

Methods of extinguishing fires

Of Course, the choice of methods and means of elimination of uncontrolled fire must be made depending on several key factors. As a rule, the strength and form of fire and the speed of its spread. In addition, they take into account natural and weather conditions, availability of forces for effective elimination of fire. One of the most frequently used ways of fighting can be considered a joke. Oddly enough, but to eliminate the uncontrolled use controlled flame which is directed toward the fire. Such actions are carried out as follows: existing natural and artificial boundaries starts start the annealing with a special tagiatelle devices or, if not available, any available tools. It is important to remember that if the above activities are performed with special tools, it requires the participation of qualified personnel specially trained to work with this technique. However, when conducting any operations with the fire should observe the safety rules.

Ways of fighting steppe fires

Advice on protection of population

Wildfires are a particular danger for people is not so much a direct influence of how much harmful for the organism effects. Because the combustion occurs is large enough, the probability of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. In addition, there is the total deoxygenation of atmospheric air. Thus, currently there are the following main ways of protection of the population:

1. The evacuation of the population and agricultural animals from industrial sites and settlements.

2. Restricting access to the fire regions.

3. The most rapid extinguishing of fires.

4. Providing the most secure environment to eliminate the fire.

Precautions

In that case, if you were in the areas affected by fire, the most important thing is not to panic. Because such actions may contribute to the emergence of threats to health and life. During evacuation it is necessary to move perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the fire. Thus it is necessary to close not only the respiratory system, but also exposed areas of the body.

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Article in other languages:

BE: https://www.tostpost.com/be/nav-ny-gramadstva/6229-stepavyya-pazhary-sposaby-tushennya-stepavyh-pazhara.html

DE: https://www.tostpost.com/de/news-und-gesellschaft/6229-steppen-br-nde-m-glichkeiten-des-lschens-der-brnde.html

ES: https://www.tostpost.com/es/noticias-y-sociedad/6235-esteparias-de-incendios-medios-de-extinci-n-de-incendios-de-la-estepa.html

KK: https://www.tostpost.com/kk/zha-aly-tar-o-am/6232-dala-rtter-t-s-lder-dala-rtter-n-s-nd-ru.html

PL: https://www.tostpost.com/pl/aktualno-ci-i-spo-ecze-stwo/6234-stepowi-po-ary-sposoby-gaszenia-stepowych-odpala.html

PT: https://www.tostpost.com/pt/not-cias-e-sociedade/6230-prairie-inc-ndios-m-todos-de-extin-o-de-estepe-de-inc-ndios.html

TR: https://www.tostpost.com/tr/haber-ve-toplum/6236-otlak-yang-nlar-yollar-s-nd-rme-bozk-r-yang-nlar.html

UK: https://www.tostpost.com/uk/novini-ta-susp-l-stvo/6234-stepov-pozhezh-sposobi-gas-nnya-stepovih-pozhezh.html






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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