One of the most important processes in our body is blood clotting. The scheme described below (also provided for clarity and image). And since this is a complex process, it is necessary to consider it in detail.
So, the designated process is responsible for stopping bleeding resulting from damage to a particular component of the vascular system of the body.
If to speak a simple language, we can distinguish three phases. First – activation. After damage of the vessel begin to occur consecutive reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of the so-called prothrombinase. It – a complex consisting of V and X factors of coagulation. It is formed on the surface of the phospholipid membranes of platelets.
The Second phase – coagulation. At this stage of fibrinogen formed fibrin – high molecular weight protein, which is the basis of thrombus, the occurrence of which involves blood clotting. The scheme provided below, this phase demonstrates.
And finally, the third stage. It involves the formation of fibrin clot, wherein the dense structure. By the way, that by washing and drying, one can obtain the “material”, which is then used for the preparation of sterile films and sponges to stop bleeding caused by the rupture of small blood vessels during surgical operations.
The Above has been briefly described blood clotting. The scheme, incidentally, was developed in 1905 by a scientist named coagulology by the name of Paul Oskar Morawitz. And it has not lost its relevance until now.
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But since 1905 in the understanding of blood coagulation as a complex process has changed a lot. The progress, of course. Scientists have been able to open dozens of new reactions and of proteins that are involved in this process. And now more widespread cascade of blood coagulation. Thanks to her perception and understanding of such a complex process becomes a little more understandable.
As you can see in below image, what is happening literally “cannibalized for bricks”. Take into account the internal and external system – blood and tissue. For each characteristic of a certain deformation occurring as a result of damage. In the blood system, damage the vascular wall, collagen, and protease (cleaving enzyme) and catecholamines (molecules-mediators). In tissue there is cellular damage, which comes out of them thromboplastin. Which is the most important stimulator of the coagulation process (also called coagulation). He goes directly into the blood. This is his “path”, but he has a protective nature. After all, the thromboplastin triggers the clotting process. After its release into the bloodstream begins the implementation of the above three phases.
So, what about is a blood clotting, diagram to understand helped. Now I would like to talk a bit about time.
The Whole process takes a maximum of 7 minutes. The first phase lasts from five to seven. During that time, it formed prothrombin. This substance is a complex variation of protein structure responsible for the process of coagulation and the blood's ability to thicken. Which is used by our body in order to clot formation. It clogs up the damaged area, so that the bleeding stops. All it takes is 5-7 minutes. The second and third stages occur much faster. For 2-5 seconds. Because these phases of blood coagulation (figure provided above) affect the processes that occur everywhere. And therefore the injury directly.
Prothrombin, in turn, is formed in the liver. And its synthesis takes time. How quickly develop into a sufficient amount of prothrombin depends on the amount of vitamin K contained in the body. If it is not enough, the bleeding will stop difficult. And this is a serious problem. Since lack of vitamin K indicates a violation of synthesis protrombina. And it – a disease that must be treated.
Well, the General scheme of blood coagulation is clear – should now pay some attention to the subject, concerning what must be done to restore the required amount of vitamin K in the body.
For a start – eat right. The largest amount of vitamin K contained in green tea – 959 micrograms per 100 g! Three times more, incidentally, than in the black. Because it is actively drinking. Do not neglect vegetables-spinach, white cabbage, tomatoes, green peas, onions.
The meat contains vitamin K, too, but not all – only in veal, beef liver, lamb. But it is a part of the garlic, raisins, milk, apples and grapes.
However, if the situation is serious, one with a variety of menus to help will be difficult. Usually doctors advise to combine your diet with the medications they prescribed. Treatment should not be delayed. It was necessary for him to begin to normalize the blood clotting mechanism. Treatment regimen prescribed by a doctor, and he also obliged to warn what could happen if the recommendations neglected. And the consequences can be liver dysfunction, thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, pernicious anemia, tumors and lesions of stem cells in the bone marrow.
In the end of XIX century lived the famous physiologist and doctor of medical Sciences. His name was Alexander Schmidt. He lived 63 years, and b&mónica;most of the time devoted to the study of problems of Hematology. But carefully he studied the subject of blood coagulation. He managed to establish the enzymatic nature of the process, whereby a scientist has proposed a theoretical explanation for him. Which visually depicts the given below scheme of blood coagulation.
In the first place, there is a reduction of the damaged vessel. Then the defect is formed is loose, the primary platelet plug. Then it is maintained. As a consequence, a red thrombus (otherwise known as a blood clot). After which it is partially or completely dissolved.
In this process, there are certain factors of blood clotting. The scheme is in its unfolded variant, also their displays. They are indicated by Arabic numerals. And there are a total of 13. And each had to be told.
A Full scheme of blood coagulation is impossible without listing them. Well, you should start with the first one.
The Factor I-a colorless protein fibrinogen. Synthesized in the liver, dissolved in the Plaza. Factor II-prothrombin, which has already been mentioned above. His unique ability is to bind calcium ions. And it is due to the splitting of this substance formed by the enzyme of coagulation.
Factor III – a protein complex lipoprotein, tissue thromboplastin. It is called the transport of phospholipids, cholesterol, and more triacylglycerides.
The Next factor IV, are Ca2+ ions. The ones that contact under the influence of a colourless protein. They are involved in many complex processes in addition to coagulation, secretion of neurotransmitters, for example.
Factor V – it is a globulin. Which also formed in the liver. It is necessary for the binding of corticosteroids (hormonal substances) and transport them. Factor VI for a while there, but then it was decided to withdraw from classification. Because scientists have found – it includes the factor V.
But the classification did not change. Because after V is factor VII. Includes proconvertin, with which the fabric is formed prothrombinase (the first phase).
Factor VIII-a protein expressed in the same chain. Known as antihemophilic globulin A. because of its lack of developing such rare hereditary diseases as hemophilia. Factor IX is “related” earlier mentioned. So as antihemophilic globulin Factor V. X – directly globulin synthesized in the liver.
And finally, the last three points. This factor Rosenthal, Hageman and stabilization of fibrin. They are, in the aggregate, affect the formation of intermolecular bonds and the normal functioning of this process, as the coagulation of blood.
Schema Schmidt includes all these factors. And fluent enough to read them, to understand how the described process is complex and multivalued.
This concept is also necessary to note the attention. The above describes the blood coagulation system – the layout also demonstrates the flow of this process. But the so-called “protivosvertavatmi” is also the place to be.
For a start I would like to note that in the course of evolution, scientists have decided two completely opposite problem. They tried to find out – as the body can prevent the leakage of blood from damaged blood vessels, and thus keep it in a liquid state in the whole? ...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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