Ataxia - what is it? Symptoms and types of ataxia

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2018-03-18 21:10:46

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Ataxia – is not accompanied by paralysis of the violation of motor skills, characteristics of which are disorders of rhythm and coordination. In Greek, the word ataxia means "chaos" and "randomness".

With this diagnosis movements become disproportionate, awkward, imprecise, often suffer walk and in some cases even speech. Consider what stand out of the variety of ataxia, and what are their characteristic features.ataxia is a

Friedreich's Ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia – it is a genetically determined neurological disorder that bears progressive character. The initial symptoms of disease become visible in the first few decades of life.

First, there are violations of the handwriting and gait. For children, however, to identify a violation of the handwriting is difficult due to the fact that he was still not fully formed. As for gait, the patient needs support, he is constantly swinging. All movements of the legs are more jerk than progressive in nature.

Develops Over time, the inability to stand (astasia) and even walk (Abaza). However, the latter is a typical manifestation of the rapidly progressive course of the disease and the last stages.

There are changes of the spine, which is especially important for teenagers who have a process of its formation is not finished yet. After a few years the patient due to the malfunction of the pancreas develop diabetes. A little later, due to degenerative changes of the gonads occurs hypogonadism. In the last stages of ataxia with visual impairment resulting from degenerative changes in the optic and oculomotor nerves. In addition, due to the damage of neurons in the brain develop dementia.Ataxia symptoms

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Defeat of the cerebellum

Cerebellar ataxia-a disorder of motor coordination that develops with the defeat of the main bearing responsibility, organ - the cerebellum of the brain. In some cases, develop minor changes, others more serious and heavy.

The Development of ataxia due to touching different areas of the cerebellum pathological process. Often cerebellar ataxia diagnosed with encephalitis, vascular diseases of the cerebellum, multiple sclerosis, malignant brain tumors, poisoning, and certain diseases of genetic origin. Allocate 2 types of cerebellar ataxia – static and dynamic.

Static cerebellar ataxia

The Defeat of the cerebellum is expressed in static ataxia due to a reduced tone of the muscles. The patient in the process becomes difficult long time to remain in one position, also it there is an insignificant disturbance of motor coordination. The man moves very wide and tottering steps, as if in a state of intoxication. In the case of heavy course of the disease the patient is not able to sit and stand, because, lacking the strength even to hold his head, he constantly falls. Static ataxia in severe form deprives patient of ability to keep balance. It should be noted that motor coordination is not affected, is patient with open or with closed eyes.

inherited Friedreich's this aiaccia

Dynamic cerebellar ataxia

Dynamic ataxia develops when involvement of the cerebellar hemispheres in the pathological process. With the variety of the disease coordination disorders occur exclusively during physical movement. Lost the smoothness and precision of movements, they become bulky and awkward. Discoordination and slow movements are observed on the affected side. For dynamic ataxia characteristic hypermetria (redundancy, opposite motion), diazoketones, pomahivaya and intention tremor, and speech disorders (patients talk slowly, breaking the word into syllables).

In the standing position and when walking the patient deviates corresponding to the damaged hemisphere of the cerebellum side. Change handwriting of the patient: he becomes rough, sweeping with large letters. It is possible reduction of tendon reflexes.

Sensory ataxia

This ataxia – it is a disorder of movement, a change in gait due to loss of sensation in the legs, which is a consequence of lesions of peripheral nerves, the medial loop posterior columns or the posterior roots of the spinal cord. The patient does not feel the position of the feet, and therefore experiences difficulties when walking and when standing. As a rule, he stands with legs wide apart and this can balance only with the eyes open if they close, people will start to wobble and likely fall (positive symptom Romberg). When walking, patients are also widely spread your legs and raise them much higher than necessary, and impulsively swinging either forward or backward. Their steps are of different length, and the foot touching the floor, making flapping sounds. The patient while walking normally use to support the stick and a few bends in Tazo­femoral joints of the body. Gait disturbance exacerbate the defects. Often, patients lose stability, sway and fall when washing your face as I close my eyes, lose vision control.sensory ataxia

Spinocerebellar ataxia

This term refers to a variety of movement disorders that occur mostly due to ischemic damage of the CNS in the perinatal period or hypoxia. The severity of gait changes may be different and depends on the severity and nature of the lesion. So, lightweight limited lesions can cause Babinski, increased tendon reflexes, and not accompanied by a pronounced change of gait. Extensive and more pronounced lesions usually involve bilateral hemiparesis. There are changes of gait and postures characteristic of paresis.

Cerebral palsy produces motor disorders that result in gait changes. Patients while there are involuntary movements in the limbs accompanied by grimaces on the face or rotational movements of the neck. As a rule, legs extended and arms bent, but this asymmetry of limbs may become noticeable only under careful observation of the patient. For example, one hand can be bronirovania and extended, and the other spinarova and bent. The asymmetrical position of the limbs often occurs when turning the head in different directions.

spinocerebellar ataxia

Diagnosis of ataxia

For diagnosis such methods of diagnostics as:

  • MRI of the brain;
  • Electroencephalography of the brain;
  • DNA diagnosis;
  • Electromyography.

In addition to any of the aforementioned methods it is necessary to take a blood test, pass the examination by such specialists as a neurologist, psychiatrist and optometrist.

Treatment of ataxia

Ataxia – this is a serious condition that requires timely action. Treatment, which carries out specialist neurologist, is mainly symptomatic and includes the following areas.

  1. Restorative therapy (anticholinesterase drugs, "Cerebrolysin", ATP, b vitamins).
  2. Physical therapy aimed at preventing various kinds of complications (muscle atrophy and contractures, for example), improvement in walking and coordination, maintaining physical fitness.

Special gymnastic exercises physical therapy, the purpose of which is to reduce incoordination and muscle strengthening. Radical method of treatment (surgery of tumors of the cerebellum, for example), you can expect partial or full recovery or at least stop further progression.

Friedreich's ataxia, taking into account the pathogenesis of the disease, have an enormous role to play drugs to maintain the functions of mitochondria (Riboflavin, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, succinic acid).static ataxia

The Prognosis of the disease

The Prognosis of hereditary diseases is very unfavorable. Over time, especially when idle, neuro-psychiatric disorders only progressing. In people with a diagnosis of "ataxia", symptoms which with age become more pronounced, as a rule, significantly reduced working capacity.

However, due to symptomatic treatment and the prevention of intoxication, injuries and infections, patients live to old age.

Prevention

dynamic ataxiaTo take preventive measures specifically for ataxia is impossible. First, you need to prevent the emergence and development of acute infectious diseases (sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, for example) that could cause ataxia.

It is Necessary to avoid blood marriages. In addition, it should be remembered that the probability of transmission of hereditary ataxia from parent to child, and because patients are often recommended to refuse the birth of a private...


Article in other languages:

AR: https://www.tostpost.com/ar/health/156-ataxia---what-is-it-symptoms-and-types-of-ataxia.html

BE: https://www.tostpost.com/be/zdaro-e/256-ataks---geta-shto-takoe-s-mptomy-v-dy-ataks.html

DE: https://www.tostpost.com/de/gesundheit/253-ataxie---was-ist-das-symptome-und-arten-von-ataxie.html

ES: https://www.tostpost.com/es/la-salud/258-la-ataxia-es-lo-que-es-s-ntomas-y-tipos-de-ataxia.html

HI: https://www.tostpost.com/hi/health/156-ataxia---what-is-it-symptoms-and-types-of-ataxia.html

JA: https://www.tostpost.com/ja/health/155-ataxia---what-is-it-symptoms-and-types-of-ataxia.html

KK: https://www.tostpost.com/kk/densauly/256-ataksiya---b-l-ne-belg-ler-zh-ne-t-rler-ataksii.html

PL: https://www.tostpost.com/pl/zdrowie/259-ataksja---to-co-to-jest-objawy-i-rodzaje-ataksja.html

PT: https://www.tostpost.com/pt/sa-de/256-a-ataxia-o-que-os-sintomas-e-os-tipos-de-ataxia.html

TR: https://www.tostpost.com/tr/sa-l-k/262-ataksi---bu-nedir-belirtileri-ve-t-rleri-ataksi.html

UK: https://www.tostpost.com/uk/zdorov-ya/258-ataks-ya---ce-scho-take-simptomi-vidi-ataks.html

ZH: https://www.tostpost.com/zh/health/178-ataxia---what-is-it-symptoms-and-types-of-ataxia.html






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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