Invasive breast cancer: causes, diagnosis, treatment. Blood for tumor markers


2018-05-23 21:00:33




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Breast Cancer is not associated with age, social affiliation or gender. Pathology can appear in each person. However, the percentage of males among the cases is negligible. There are different forms of breast cancer. In this article we take a closer look at invasive variant of the disease.

The Structure of the female breast

To better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, it is necessary to understand the anatomy of the breast. In its structure it is accepted to distinguish the following parts:

  • Fat;
  • Connective tissue;
  • Breasts;
  • Ducts;
  • Slices of the breast.

Another important part of breast are lymphadenitis. They catch cancer the elements and harmful microorganisms performing a protective function.

Pregnancy enhances the production of milk in the glands. Then it follows from the nipple ducts. Certain types of malignant tumors of the glands begin their development, affecting several thoracic ducts. These include invasive cancer.

invasive breast cancer

Description of the disease

Invasive breast cancer — this is a serious cancer. It is characterized by tumor spread into fat or connective tissue. Under the invasion is the ability of malignant elements stand apart from the primary tumor and quickly hit the surrounding organs. Is a prerequisite for tumor metastasis. It is the invasiveness or noninvasiveness of tumors depends on tactics of treatment.

In this disease cancer cells rapidly infects nearby lymph nodes. At advanced stages of their activity spreads to the spinal cord, the liver and kidneys. If malignant elements found outside the breast, this type of pathology is called metastatic cancer of the breast.


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invasive ductal carcinoma

Main reasons

Invasive breast cancer progresses slowly. Its occurrence may be preceded by precancerous diseases, such as mastitis. Let us consider in more detail the main causes of the disease.

  1. Breast. The disease develops on the background of an imbalance of hormones in the body. This files most often is diagnosed in women under 40 years. For mastitis characterized by severe pain, discharge from the nipple. Chest formed tumor nodules, which leads to changes in the body tissues and cancer.
  2. Fibroadenoma. This pathology predominantly develops in young girls. Chest appear knotty formation of a benign nature. As a result of injury, no treatment, or hormonal failure, they begin to grow in size, affecting healthy tissue.
  3. Abortion. Surgical procedures not only terminates the pregnancy, but can cause a re-development of glandular tissue. As a result, a seal from which cancer develops.
  4. Lactation. The non-breast-feeding — this is another reason invasive cancer.
  5. The Lack of intimacy. Irregular sexual life, disrupts the hormone balance in the body, which negatively affects the mammary glands.

invasive breast cancer prognosis

Clinical manifestations of disease

Breast cancer no one can be insured. According to statistics, every ninth woman suffered from the symptoms of this disease. According to doctors, the patients may be several times more. More than a million women are not aware of the presence of the tumor. In the early stages of pathology occurs virtually asymptomatic, and diagnosed only through a comprehensive survey. Unfortunately, the first signs often means that the disease has moved to a new stage of development. What symptoms indicate invasive breast cancer?

  • Change the color of the skin of the nipple.
  • The Appearance of small seal or lumps in the breast area.
  • Changing the size and shape of the breast.
  • Bloody discharge from the nipple, causing burning and discomfort.

If these symptoms occur, you should immediately consult a doctor to identify the causes.

the structure of the female breast


In the medical literature describes several variants of pathologies, representing invasive breast cancer. Such diseases include:

  • Preinvasive cancer. The tumor does not extend to adjacent organs, and remains in the milky ducts.
  • Lobular carcinoma. The disease is diagnosed very rarely (in 15% of cases). The tumor develops in the lobules and ducts of the glands may metastasize to the surrounding tissue. The main symptom of pathology — the chest pain on palpation.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma. The tumor is formed in the milky ducts. Malignant cells multiply gradually in body fat, but quickly metastasize to other organs. Ductal carcinoma is the most common form of invasive breast lesions (about 80% of cases among all cancers).

Diagnostic Methods

Diagnosis of the disease usually starts with self. The structure of the female breast allows you to identify the seal on palpation. Change skin, shape of the nipple and other symptoms, indicatingthe severity of the pathology, you can also discover on your own. If you suspect the disease you must consult a doctor. The specialist should conduct a physical examination and order additional testing. Usually, diagnosis using mammography, breast ultrasound and MRI. Upon detection of tumors biopsy. The resulting samples are then sent for analysis to the laboratory. The results of the research allow to determine the hormonal status of the tumor, its characteristics.

 blood for oncomarkers

We should also talk about when and why to donate blood for tumor markers. This analysis is used to diagnose diseases, and then — to monitor the treatment. Tumor markers are macromolecules that are synthesized in a woman's body in response to the activity of the cancer elements. When their levels exceed the normal values, it is possible to speak about the presence of the pathological process, but not always. In some cases, the increase in the number of macromolecules in the blood indicates an Allergy, benign or inflammation. When suspicion of invasive cancer, it is necessary to check the concentration of the following tumor markers: CA 15-3, CA 27-29, HER2. To obtain reliable results before testing to relax, not to take alcohol. Blood for tumor markers pass from the vein. The interpretation of results does the doctor in the lab.

Treatment Options

There are several methods for invasive cancer: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, biological, hormone therapy. Commonly used complex treatment. First the doctor removes the tumor. Then the patient is assigned radiotherapy. It allows to increase efficacy of treatment by 70 %. Be sure to irradiation is indicated for patients whose tumor size exceeds 5 cm, Chemotherapy, hormone and biological therapy is used as systemic therapies against cancer. If the tissues of the gland revealed the receptors of progesterone or estrogen, used hormone treatment. In the absence of these elements is prescribed chemotherapy.

invasive breast cancer 2 degrees

Forecast for recovery

The Prognosis of this disease depends on the results of treatment. Invasive lesion of the breast characterized by a high percentage of deaths. Therefore, many States are beginning to implement screening programs that detect cancer in the early stages. All of them there are four. Invasive breast cancer 2nd degree or 1st diagnosed in a timely manner, in 90% of cases ends in recovery. Positive dynamics is possible only with proper treatment. The survival rate for cancer of the 3rd degree is 47 %, and at 4th — about 16 %. In the later stages is difficult to treatment of invasive breast cancer. Prognosis significantly worsens with the appearance of metastases.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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