Bronchitis, the child is the most common inflammatory disease of the respiratory system, especially in early childhood. Bronchitis is an acute-onset, or in some cases a chronic inflammatory process in a tracheobronchial tree.
Cause of disease
Bronchitis, the child called pathogenic bacteria or viruses. Among the bacterial pathogens most commonly encountered staphylo-, pneumo - or streptococci, viral agents of the influenza or parainfluenza, measles, whooping cough or other respiratory viruses. The disease can occur when exposed to different factors, e.g., from too hot or cold air, chemical irritants, from the presence of a permanent chronic infection in the respiratory tract, exposure to allergens etc.
The ingress of the pathogen into the body in most cases is through inhaled air. Less frequently, infectious agents may enter the bloodstream or lymph. Penetrating into the mucous membrane of the bronchi, the pathogen causes an acute inflammatory reaction, with edema and increased secretion of bronchial secretions. In young children, these processes can lead to the rapid development of obstruction (blockage) of the bronchi and acute respiratory failure.
The Secret of allocated bronchi in the early stages of the disease is slimy, with worsening of the process, it becomes purulent, and the inflammation captures the deeper layers of bronchial walls.
Signs of bronchitis in children
Onset of the disease is characterized by the appearance of malaise, slight rise in temperature and the appearance of a dry hacking cough. These symptoms are often characteristic of normal respiratory infection. Very often bronchitis the child is a consequence of the spread of SARS in the lower parts of the respiratory tract. During the inspection and listening to the chest, you can hear hard breathing. Wheezing is usually in the initial period is not observed. If the inflammation is aggravated, the health of the child deteriorates significantly, increases body temperature, cough becomes wet, sputum trudnootdelyaemoy. May appear short of breath. In children, particularly severe bronchiolitis. This inflammation of the bronchial tubes. However, their lumen is sealed in a thick purulent mucus, causing severe shortness of breath and oxygen starvation of tissues. Such a child breath wheezing and noisy, in the distance you can hear the breath on the exhale. During the inspection it is possible to note participation in respiration accessory respiratory muscles. In young children the presence of bronchiolitis is often associated with development of pneumonia, so they are not differencebut among themselves.
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Cough, as mentioned above, at the beginning of the disease dry, after adequate treatment, he passes into the wet and gradually begins to hawk phlegm. You can listen to the auscultation moist rales or hard breathing.
The children are Allergy sufferers in contact with an allergen, develop bronchitis without fever. Such a diagnosis of bronchitis usually does not cause difficulties, because there is a clear dependence of the development of the disease from allergic agents.
Diagnosis "bronchitis" the child is exposed on the basis of complaints and clinical manifestations. Unlike pneumonia, bronchitis is no respiratory distress. If you run a blood test, you can see signs of inflammation (increased white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, shift of leukocyte formula), if the cause of allergic bronchitis, it increases the number of eosinophils.
Auscultated Auscultation hard breathing, can be dry or moist rales.
Bronchitis, the child must be distinguished from pneumonia, asthma.
The Child needs to rest, drink plenty of liquids. Inhalation or inside give expectorant drugs, perform alkaline inhalations. If necessary, prescribe antibiotics. The temperature down with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Prescribe antihistamines.
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