Aminoglycosides: drugs (list the names, classification, application instruction)

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2018-03-18 06:36:01

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The Appearance on the pharmaceutical market new antibiotics with a broad spectrum of effects, such as fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, has led to the fact that doctors have become extremely rare to appoint aminoglycosides (drugs). The list of medications included in this group is quite extensive and includes such well-known medications as “Penicillin”, “Gentamicin”, “Amikacin”. Until today in the intensive care and surgical wards are still the most popular drugs that is aminoglikozidnyi stimulants.

aminoglycoside drugs list

Brief description of group

Aminoglycosides-drugs (drug list will be discussed below), different semi-synthetic or natural origin. This group of antibiotics has a fast and powerful antibacterial effects on the body.

Medicine peculiar to a wide range of actions. Their antimicrobial activity is pronounced against gram-negative bacteria, but significantly reduced in the fight against gram-positive organisms. And absolutely aminoglycosides ineffective against anaerobes.

This group of drugs produces an excellent antibacterial effect thanks to the ability to irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis in sensitive microorganisms at the level of ribosomes. The drugs are active against both proliferating and cells that are at rest. The degree of activity of antibiotics depends entirely on their concentration in the blood serum of the patient.

The Group of aminoglycosides used today is rather limited. This is due to the high toxicity of these medicines. Most often suffer from these drugs the kidneys and hearing.

An Important feature of these tools is their inability to penetrate inside a living cell. Thus, aminoglycosides absolutely powerless in the fight against intracellular bacteria.

Advantages and disadvantages

These antibiotics are widely used, as mentioned above, surgical practice. And this is no coincidence. Doctors stress the many advantages of the aminoglycosides.

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The effects of drugs on the body has the following positive aspects:

  • High antibacterial activity;
  • Lack of painful reaction (when injected);
  • Rare occurrence of Allergy;
  • The ability to destroy proliferating bacteria;
  • Enhanced therapeutic effect in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics;
  • High activity in the fight against dangerous infections.

However, in addition to the advantages described above, this group of drugs has disadvantages.

amikacin instructions for use injections

The Disadvantages of aminoglycosides are:

  • Low activity of drugs in the absence of oxygen or in an acidic environment;
  • Poor penetration of the main substances in body fluids (bile, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum);
  • The emergence of many side effects.

Classification of medicines

There are several classifications.

So, given the sequence of the introduction into medical practice of aminoglycosides, there are the following generation:

  1. The First medicines used to control infectious diseases have become “Drug”, “Monomitsin”, “It”, “Kanamycin”, “Paromomycin”.
  2. To the second generation are more modern aminoglycosides (drugs). List of drugs: “Gentamicin”, “Tobramycin”, “Sisomicin”, “Netilmicin”.
  3. This group includes semi-synthetic medicines, such as “Amikacin”, “Isepamicin”.

Range of action and resistance klassificeret slightly different aminoglycosides.

Generation of medicines are the following:

1. 1 group includes such drugs: “Drug”, “Kanamycin”, “Monomitsin”, “It”. These medicines help to fight the causative agents of tuberculosis and several atypical bacteria. However, against many gram-negative microorganisms and staphylococci, they are rendered powerless.

2. The representative of the second generation aminoglycosides – cure "Doxycycline". It features great antibacterial activity.

3. More advanced drugs. They have high antibacterial activity. Used against Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, namely, third-generation aminoglycosides (drugs). The list of medications is as follows:

- ‘Sisomicin”

- “Amikacin”

- “Tobramycin”

- ‘Netilmicin”.

4. The fourth group includes the drug “Isepamicin”. It is characterized by the ability to effectively deal with Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Nocardia.

In medical practice developed by another classification. It is based on the use of drugs depending on the clinical presentation of disease, the nature of the infection and the method of application.

amikacin instructions for use for kids

This classification of aminoglycosides as follows:

  1. Medicines for systemic exposure introduced into the body parenterally (injection). For the treatment of bacterial purulent infections, occurring in severe forms, triggered by opportunistic anaerobic organisms are prescribed these drugs: “Gentamicin”, “Amikacin”, “Netilmicin”, “Tobramycin”, “Sisomicin”. Treatment of hazardous monoinfected, which are obligate pathogens that are effective when included in therapy of drugs “Drug”, “Gentamicin”. While mycobacteriosis is a good medication “Amikacin”, “Drug”, “Kanamycin”.
  2. Drugs that are used exclusively inside the special indications. These are: “Paromycin”, “It”, “Monomitsin”.
  3. Medicines for local use. They are used for treatment of suppurative bacterial infections in otorhinolaryngology and ophthalmology. For local effects developed drugs ‘Gentamicin”, “Framizetin”, “It”, “Tobramycin”.

Indications

The Use of aminoglycosides is advisable to destroy a variety of aerobic gram-negative pathogens. Medications may be used as monotherapy. Often they are combined with beta-lactams.

Aminoglycoside indicated for the treatment of:

  • Hospital infections of different localization;
  • Purulent postoperative complications;
  • Intra-abdominal infections;
  • Sepsis;
  • Infectious endocarditis;
  • Pyelonephritis, occurs in severe forms;
  • Infected burns;
  • Bacterial purulent meningitis;
  • Tuberculosis;
  • Dangerous infectious diseases (plague, brucellosis, tularemia);
  • Septic arthritis, triggered by gram-negative bacteria;
  • Urinary tract infections;
  • Eye diseases: blepharitis, bacterial keratitis, conjunctivits, keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, dacryocystitis;
  • Otorhinolaryngologic diseases: external otitis, rhinopharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis;
  • Protozoal infections.

Side effects

Unfortunately, during the treatment of this category of medications the patient may feel a number of adverse effects. The main drawback of medications – this is a high toxicity. That is why only a doctor should prescribe the patient aminoglycosides.

netilmicin usage instructions

Side effects may occur:

  1. Ototoxicity. Patients complain of hearing loss, occurrence of ringing noise. They often point to the ears. Most of these reactions observed in the elderly, in people who initially suffer from hearing loss. Such reactions develop in patients with prolonged therapy or high doses.
  2. Nephrotoxicity. The patient appears excessive thirst, changes the amount of urine (it can both increase and decrease), increased blood creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration. Such symptoms are typical of people suffering from impaired renal function.
  3. Neuromuscular blockade. Sometimes during therapy inhibited breathing. In some cases there is even paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Typically, these reactions are characteristic of patients with neurological diseases or with compromised renal function.
  4. Vestibular disorders. They are manifested by loss of coordination, dizziness. Very often, these side effects appear when you assign patient drug “Drug”.
  5. Neurological disorders. May appear paresthesia, encephalopathy. Sometimes therapy is accompanied by damage to the optic nerve.

Very rarely, aminoglycosides cause allergic reactions such as skin rashes.

Contraindications

The Described drugs have some restrictions for use. Often contraindicated aminoglycosides (which was...


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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