Intestinal villi: structure, function, blood supply and features


2018-03-18 02:36:09




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For the normal functioning of the human body needs the intake of food. Suction is essential for life substances and their cleavage products is carried out in the small intestine. It located in the intestinal villi and carry out this function. About their anatomy, placement, Cytology, and will be discussed further.

Structure of the small intestine and its functions

In human anatomy distinguish 3 sections-duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The first about 30 cm in length. Here come the special enzymes from the epithelium of the intestine, bile and pancreatic enzymes. In the same Department begins the process of suction. Water and salts, amino acids and vitamins, fatty acids actively sucked through the villi.

Between the jejunum and ileum there is no clear outer boundary and the overall length is 4.5 to 5.5 m. But the internal differences exist, of course. Jejunum:

  • Has a greater wall thickness;
  • The intestinal villi her longer and of smaller diameter, and their number is more;
  • It is better supplied with blood.

intestinal villus

Still, the main function of the duodenum-digestion. Not only in the cavity of the intestine, this process is carried out, but near the walls (digestion), as well as inside the cells (intracellular).

For the latter in the mucosa there is a special transport system for each ingredient. Additional function of this small intestine is the absorption. In the others – this is the main function.

Placement of the villi and their anatomy

The Intestinal villi in the digestive canal are located in all three divisions of the small intestine and give them a velvety appearance. The length of each of the fibers is approximately 1 mm, and the accommodation is very dense. They are formed from protrusions of mucous membrane. One square millimeter of the surface of the first and second divisions of the small intestine from 22 to 40 pieces, iliac – 30.


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how does intestinal villi

Outside of the intestinal villi is covered with epithelium. Each of the cells has many outgrowths called microvilli. Their number can reach up to 4 thousand for one epitheliocyte, which greatly increases the surface epithelium, and, as a consequence, the suction surface of the intestine.

the function of intestinal villus

All of the intestinal villi in the digestive canal of a person have along the axis of lymphatic capillaries that originate at the apex of the villi and many blood capillaries located in the stroma.

The Cellular structure of the villi

It is the presence of a certain type of cells responsible for the functioning of the intestinal villus. But about all under the order:

Each fiber, regardless of the location, lined with a layer of epithelium consists of 3 cell types: columnar epitheliocytes, goblet ekzokrinnye and endocrinocytes.


This is the most frequent in the epithelium of the villus cell type. His second title of epithelioid columnar type. The cells of prismatic shape. And the main function of intestinal villi is performed by them. The enterocytes are moving from the digestive tract into the blood and lymph of essential body substances that are released during eating.

the intestinal villi in the digestive canal

The epithelial cells on the surface, there is a special border formed by microvilli. These microvilli 1 µm2 Is 60 to 90 pieces. They increase the suction surface of each cell is 30 to 40 times. Located on the surface of microvilli glycocalyx secreting digesting enzymes.

One of the varieties of epithelial cells are cells with microsludge or the so-called M-cells. Location – the surface of lymph follicles both group and single. They are distinguished by the more flattened shape and a small amount of microfibers. But the surface is covered with microsludge by which the cell is capable of capturing the macromolecule and the intestinal lumen.

Goblet ecocenotic and endogenicity

Single cell, the number of which increases from duodenum to ileum. This is a typical mucous cells, accumulating, and then releasing your secret to the surface of the mucous membrane. It is the mucus helps move food along the intestine and at the same time involved in the parietal digestion process.

The appearance of the cells depends on the degree of accumulation in it of the secret, and the formation of mucus occurs in the placement of the Golgi apparatus. An empty cell is fully allocated your secret narrow and with a reduced kernel.

how to perform the function of the intestinal villi in the digestive

It endocrinocytes synthesize and secrete biologically active substances, which not only play a digestive function, but also play an important role in the overall metabolism. The primary location of these cells-duodenum.


From the structure, it becomes immediately clear what the function of the intestinal villi in the digestive process, therefore, only briefly list them:

  1. The Absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and decomposition products. They are passed through the villi into the capillaries and with blood are transferred to the portal system of the liver.
  2. The Absorption of lipids, and more precisely, chylomicrons, particles derived from lipids. They are transmitted by the fibers in the lymph and then into the bloodstream, bypassing the liver.
  3. Another function of the intestinal villi – secretion, secretes mucus for easier movement of food through the intestines.
  4. Endocrine, because some cells of the villi are produced by histamine and serotonin, secretin and many other hormones and Basis.

Bookmark in the embryo and regeneration after damage

What are cells made of, and how functioning of the intestinal villus, we understand, but when it lays in the human body and from what cells? Will investigate this question.

At the end of the second month or the beginning of the third intrauterine development of man begins to form from the endoderm of the intestinal the small intestine and its functional elements – folds, villi, crypts.

Initially, the epithelial cells do not have strict differentiation only at the end of the third month is their separation. Glycocalyx on the microvilli, which are covered with epithelial cells, begins in the fourth month the development of the baby.

On the fifth week, when properly during pregnancy, there is a bookmark serosa of the intestine, and in the eighth, the muscle and connective tissue of the intestinal lining. All shells are laid from the mesoderm (visceral piece) and connective tissue mesenchyme.

the intestinal villi in the digestive canal of man

Although all the cells and tissues of the digestive system laid down in utero, but in time the performance of its functions of the intestinal villi can be damaged. How does the restoration of sites where the dead cells? By mitotic division of healthy cells nearby. They just take the place of the dead brethren and begin to perform its function.


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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