Blood transfusion for blood groups: rules. Universal donors. The compatibility of blood groups

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2018-03-18 01:45:31

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In modern medicine is still quite often used the procedure of blood transfusion. Blood transfusion blood – the process of its implementation from a healthy donor to a patient with impaired health (recipient). It requires the implementation of certain rules, and is not devoid of complications. Therefore, this operation is carried out with the utmost concentration on the part of medical personnel.

Transfusion blood

What you need in the beginning?

Before the procedure, the transfusion, the doctor will conduct a survey and research is needed. The donor or the recipient must have a passport, for proper accounting of all data. If available, a medical professional will examination of the patient or a donor, it measures blood pressure and identify possible contraindications.

Rules transfusion

The Transfusion of blood groups is subject to certain basics. Indications for manipulation, the required dose of transfused fluids are appointed by the medical specialist based on clinical data and tests. Rules of blood transfusion in groups created for the safety of both the donor and the recipient. A specialist needs, regardless of previously obtained survey, personally, to do the following:

  1. Find the group in the ABO system and compare the data with the available evidence.
  2. Find Out the characteristics of the erythrocytes, both the donor and the recipient.
  3. Put the sample on the overall compatibility.
  4. To Conduct a bioassay.

rules of blood transfusion in groups

The Process of identifying blood

An Important point of transfusion is the identification of biological fluids and the presence of infections. To do this, take a sample of blood for the General analysis, divide the received number into two parts and sent for study. In the laboratory, first check for the presence of infection, hemoglobin, etc. the Second is used to determine blood group and RH factor.

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what blood type is universal

Blood Group

The Transfusion of blood groups is necessary to ensure that the patient did not happen to the bonding of red blood cells through agglutination reaction, upon receipt of a measured sample. Blood group human body system classifications AVO are divided into 4 main varieties. Classification of AVO separation occurs due to the presence of specific antigens-A and B. Each of them is tied to a specific agglutinin: And bound to α and b β, respectively. Depending on the combination of these components can be formed in all the known blood groups. The combination of the homonymous components, otherwise the body will occur agglutination of red blood cells, and he simply can not continue to exist. Due to this possible only four known combinations:

  • Group 1: antigens are absent, there are two agglutinin α and β.
  • Group 2: antigen a and agglutinin β.
  • Group 3: antigen and agglutinin α.
  • Group 4: no agglutinins, the antigens are A and B.

Work groups

compatible blood groups for transfusion

Compatibility of blood groups for transfusion plays an important role in the operation. In medical practice transfusion is only the same compatible with each other species. Many people wonder, what blood group are universal donors, but do not understand the process. And yet there are those suitable components. What blood type is universal - the question has a definite answer. People with first blood due to the lack of antigens are universal donors, and those who have the fourth, are considered universal recipients. The compatibility of blood groups is to understand the process of blood transfusion.

Blood Group

Who can transfused (Donor)

Who can receive (recipient)

Group 1

Group 1

All groups

Group 2

Groups 1 and 2

2 and 4 groups

Group 3

1 and 3 groups

3 or 4 groups

Group 4

All groups

Group 4

Despite the fact that in the modern world there are many methods of treating of various diseases, to avoid the process of transfusion is still not feasible. The compatibility of blood groups helps medical experts to carry out the operation correctly, which helps to preserve the life and health of the patient. Ideal transfusion will always be the identical and the group and rhesus of blood. But there are times when a transfusion is vital to carry out in the shortest time then come to the aid of universal donors and recipients.

RH-factor

table of compatibility of blood groups

Scientific research in 1940 in the blood of macaques was found an antigen which was later named the RH factor. It is hereditary and depends on race. Those people in the blood which have this antigen are RH positive, and in the absence of RH-negative.

Compatibility for transfusion:

  • Negative RH is suitable for transfusion to people with a negative rhesus factor;
  • Compatible RH positive blood of any rhesus.

If you use the RH-positive patient's blood with RH-negative category, in the blood develop into special anti-rhesus agglutinins, while another manipulation will occur agglutination of erythrocytes. Accordingly, such a transfusion cannot occur.

Any transfusion – the stress for the human body. Whole blood is transfused only if the loss of this biological fluid is 25% and above. With the loss of a smaller amount use blood substitutes. In other cases, the transfusion of certain components, for example, Packed red cells, depending on the type of lesion.

Methods and sample

To test the compatibility of the selected recipient serum is mixed with the sample from the donor on the white sheet of paper, tilting it in different directions. After five minutes, compare the results, if bonding of red blood cells, the donor and recipient are compatible.

samples of blood transfusions

Then check the compatibility tests in blood transfusion for the RH in one of two ways.

  1. In a clean tube load have been cleaned with saline, the erythrocytes of the donor, diluted mass of the warm gelatin solution and two drops of the serum of the recipient. Place the mixture in a water bath for 10 minutes. After this time it is diluted with saline in an amount of 7 ml and mix thoroughly. If agglutination of erythrocytes is not registered, the donor and recipient are compatible.
  2. In a test-tube for centrifuge drip 2 drops of serum of the recipient, poliglyukina 1 drop and 1 drop of the donor's blood. Put the test tube in a centrifuge for 5 minutes. Then, the mixture is diluted with 5 ml of saline solution, put the beaker at an angle of 90° and check compatibility. In the absence of adhesion and discoloration of the donor and recipient are compatible.

Bioassay

To relieve the risk of complications are checking the bioassay. To do this, carry out the transfusion small amounts of blood in the recipient, and three minutes to monitor his health. In the absence of negative effects: increase in heart rate, respiratory failure, manipulation repeat two more times, carefully watching the patient. The transfusion can be carried out only when there was no negative manifestations, otherwise the operation is not carried out.

The Methodology

After all the necessary manipulations to determine the blood group and compatibility begin to do the actual transfusion. Enter the blood is not supposed to be cold, is allowed only at room temperature. If the operation is urgent, the blood is heated in a water bath. The transfusion process is carried out with the help of drip system, or directly using a syringe. The infusion rate is 50 drops per 60 seconds. During the transfusion medical specialists every 15 minutes, measure the heart rate and blood pressure of the patient. After the manipulation the patient is shown at rest and medical supervision.

blood transfusion and blood substitutes

The Need for and contraindications

Blood Transfusion is associated with a simple drip drug administration. But this is a complex process by which an alien living cells into the body of the patient. And even with perfectly matched compatibility there is always the risk of...






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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