Tectonics is the science about? Global tectonics. Tectonics in architecture

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2018-03-19 09:25:54

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Tectonics-a branch of Geology that studies the structure of the earth's crust and the movement of plates. But it is so versatile that it plays a significant role in many other Sciences about the Earth. Applied tectonics in architecture, Geochemistry, seismology, the study of volcanoes and many other areas.

Tectonics – a

Science tectonics

Tectonics – science is relatively young, she has been studying the movement of lithospheric plates. For the first time the idea of plate tectonics articulated in the theory of continental drift by Alfred Wegener in 20-ies of XX century. But its development it was only in the 60-ies of XX century, after the surveys of the topography on the continents and the ocean floor. The results enabled new insights to previously existing theories. The theory of tectonic plates was the result of the development of ideas of the theory of continental drift, the theory of geosyncline hypothesis and contractions.

Tectonics-the science that studies the strength and nature of the forces that shape mountains, crush rocks into folds, and stretching the earth's crust. It is the basis of all geological processes on the planet.

Contractiona hypothesis

The contraction Hypothesis was put forward by geologist Elie de beaumont in 1829 at the meeting of the Academy of Sciences of France. She explains the processes of mountain building and folding of the earth's crust under the influence of reducing the volume of the Earth due to cooling. The basis of the hypotheses were based on the views of Kant and Laplace on the primary fire-liquid state of the Earth and its further cooling. Therefore, the processes of mountain building and folding was explained as the process of compression of the crust. Further cooling down, the Earth was reduced in size and crushed in the folds.

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Contractional tectonics, the definition of which confirm the new doctrine of geosynclines, explained the uneven structure of the earth's crust became a solid theoretical base for the further development of science.

The Theory of geosynclines

There was at the turn of the late XIX and early XX centuries. It explains the tectonic processes of the cyclic oscillatory movements of the crust.

The Attention of geologists was drawn to the fact that the rocks may occur both horizontally and deployed. Horizontally bedded rocks were carried to the platforms, and deployed to folded regions.

According to the theory of geosynclines, at the initial stage due to the active tectonic processes is a deflection, lowering the earth's crust. This process accompanied by the demolition of precipitation and the formation of a thick series of sedimentary deposits. Further, the process of mountain building and the appearance of folding. For an estimate of geosynclinal regime comes platform, which is characterized by minor tectonic movements with the formation of a small thickness of sedimentary rocks. Final stage – it is the stage of education on the continent.

global tectonics

Almost 100 years was dominated by geosynclinal tectonics. The Geology of that time had a lack of actual material subsequently, the accumulated data led to the creation of new theories.

Theory of tectonic plates

Tectonics – is one of the areas in Geology, which formed the basis of modern theories about the movement of plates.

According to the theory of the lithospheric plates of the earth crust-lithospheric plates that are in constant motion. Their movement is relative to each other. In the tensile zones of the earth's crust (mid-ocean ridges and continental rifts) formed new oceanic crust (zone of spreading). In areas of dip of crustal blocks occurs, the absorption of old crust and the dip of the oceanic under continental (subduction zone). Also in the framework of the theory explains the causes of earthquakes, the process of orogeny and volcanic activity.

tectonics Geology

Global plate tectonics includes such key concept, as the geodynamic setting. It is characterized by a combination of geological processes, within the same territory, in a certain period of geological time. For the same geodynamic setting characterized by the same geological processes.

Structure of the earth

Tectonics-a branch of Geology that studies the structure of the planet Earth. Land in a rough approximation, has the form of a flattened ellipsoid and consists of several shells (layers).

The structure of the globe there are the following layers:

  1. Crust.
  2. Mantle.
  3. The Kernel.

Earth crust-the outer solid layer of the Earth, from the mantle it is separated by a boundary called the surface of Mohorovich.

Mantle, in turn, is divided into upper and lower. The boundary separating the layers of the mantle is the layer Golitsyn. The crust and upper mantle to the asthenosphere are the lithosphere of the Earth.

global tectonics

The Core is the center of the globe, separated from the mantle by the Guttenberg border. It is divided into a liquid outer and solid inner core, in between there is a transition zone.

Crustal Structure

The structure of the crust has a direct bearing on the science of tectonics. Geology is studying not only the processes occurring in the bowels of the Earth, but also its structure.

The crust – this is the upper part of the lithosphere is the outer solid shell of the Earth, it is composed of rocks of different physical and chemical composition. For physico-chemical parameters, there is a subdivision into three layers:

  1. Bazaltovye.
  2. Granite-grasby.
  3. Osadochnye.

Also there is a division in the structure of the crust. There are four basic types of earth core:

  1. Kontinentalna.
  2. Okeanicheskie.
  3. Subkontinentalen.
  4. Subatances.

Continental crust is represented by all three layers, its thickness varies from 35 to 75 km. the Upper sedimentary layer is developed widely, but generally has a small capacity. The next layer, the granite gneiss has a maximum capacity. A third layer of basalt, is composed of metamorphic rocks.

The Oceanic crust is represented by two layers – sedimentary and basalt, its thickness is 5-20 km.

Tectonics of the earth

The Subcontinent's crust, like continental, consists of three layers. The difference is that the capacity of the granite gneiss layer in the sub-continental crust is much less. This type of cortex is found on the border of the continent to the ocean in areas of active volcanism.

Sub-oceanic crust close to the ocean. The difference is that the capacity of the sediments can reach 25 km away. This type of bark is confined to the deep depressions of the earth's crust (the inland sea).

Plate

Plates – a major crustal blocks that are part of the lithosphere. Plates can move relative to each other at the upper part of the mantle-the asthenosphere. Plates separated from each other by deep-sea trenches, mid-ocean ridges and mountain systems. A characteristic feature of lithospheric plates is that they are able to maintain rigidity, form and structure for a long period of time.

The Tectonics of the Earth suggests that lithospheric plates are in constant motion. Over time they change their contour – can be split or coalesce. So far 14 major tectonic plates.

Plate Tectonics

The Process that creates the appearance of Land, directly related to the tectonics of lithospheric plates. Tectonics of the world implies that the movement of continents and tectonic plates. Facing each other, they form mountain ranges or deep ocean trenches. Earthquakes and volcanoes result from the movement of lithospheric plates. Active geological activity confined mainly to the edges of these formations.

The Movement of plates fixed by means of satellites, but the nature and mechanism of this process remains a mystery.

Tectonics of the oceans

Tectonics oceans

In the oceans, the processes of destruction accumulation and precipitation have a tendency to slow down so tectonic movements is well reflected in the topography. The bottom topography is complicated dismembered structure. Allocated tectonic structure formed as a result of vertical earth movements, and structures obtained due to horizontal movements.

To the ocean floor structures include such forms of relief as abyssal plains, ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges. In the area of the depressions, as a rule, there is a calm tectonic conditions in the area of mid-oceanic ridges marks the tectonic activity of the earth's crust.

Tectonics oceans still includes structures such as deep trenches, oceanic mountains and giota.

Causes sliding plate

The Driving force is the geological tectonics of the world. The main reason for which the movement of the plates is mantle convection created telohranitelem currents in the mantle. This is due to the temperature difference on the surface and in the center of the Earth. Inside the rocks are heated, they expand and decrease in density. Light ends begin to emerge, and in their place fall cold and heavy mass. Process heat transfer...


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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