Archaism: the examples in Russian and English


2018-03-19 03:35:18




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Archaisms is not just obsolete words, and those who have moved into this category due to the appearance of new words. For example, today's poem, no one calls the verse, this word can be found only in literature, theatrical productions, or in ordinary speech to give an ironic or sublime shade. Sometimes a synonym is replaced not the whole word, but only its lexical meaning. For example, the word "rise". It is used today to mean "to rebel, to be against something, to revive, to rise again" and has a high stylistic colouring. But once in Russia it was the ordinary household, which was used in the sense of "stand up, stand up". Or another example: "do Not pity the stomach!", which means "don't spare my life!" As you can see, the word belly in the Russian language is preserved, but its value has changed. And the value of "life" the word "belly" is archaic. Examples of other changes: galstuk (lexical-phonetic archaism, a modern synonym for "tie"); father. (grammatical archaism, the word "father" is in the Vocative case, which in the modern Russian language is not used); happiness (derivation archaic, today, the word "happiness" with the suffix is not used).

archaic examples

Special attention deserves a semantic archaism. Examples of such archaisms given above (your"gut," meaning "life"). They are familiar to the reader form but a different meaning, causing difficulties in understanding the text. Very often semantic archaisms are found in religious literature. For example, the "enemy" is the devil, "charm" is not something beautiful and pleasant, and the temptation that enters into sin, "the word" ("in the beginning was the Word") is not a unit of speech, and the mind. Between the archaic and the modern synonym may be quite subtle semantic relationship. "Beauty" can indeed be a temptation, but in the modern sense of the word "beauty" has more positive meaning - not necessarily any beautiful object will be sinful. Such nuances are very important for a proper understanding of the meaning of the work. Even in relatively modern authors, such as Anna Akhmatova, you can find words-archaisms. Examples from the literature are very numerous: archaic words can be found both in prose and in poetry. In the latter they play a special role, give the height, support the melodiousness and therefore look natural.


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Archaisms in the English language: examples

archaisms in the English language examples

"Old words" or "archaic words" (i.e. archaisms), in the English language can be classified almost as much as Russian. Although, of course, has its own characteristics associated with the grammatical system of language, however, can be found in almost any type of archaisms mentioned above.

For Example, thou - you (instead of you) - the most vivid and interesting archaism. Examples of forms of the word: thee - you (instead of modern you) and thy - your (modern word - your). Yes, once in the English language was the reference to "you", but today, to whom would we turned, we say "you", that is You. "You" in English yazye went out of use gradually. Very rarely, but it can be found today. For example, in the famous song of Metallica called the Unfirgiven there is a line: "So I dub thee unforgiven" - "So I dub thee Unforgiven". Of course, this is a unique archaic. Examples of other obsolete words are not so clearly reflect the social and psychological changes in the life of English-speaking people:

1. Hither - "here" (Sovrem. - here). The form hither, though is obsolete today, refers to early modern English. A more ancient form - hider that came from protogermanskoe language. However, despite the similarity of the here hither and identities between them. "Here" came from a completely different word meaning "to be in this place", hither is a slightly different connotation - "move here", no wonder there is an idiomatic expression meaning "here and there" - hither and thither.

words archaisms examples

2. Is betwixt-between. Used today a synonym of between. As it is easy to see, untreusee the word participated in the word formation of modern lexical units.

3. Hearken or harken to "listen". Some sources claim that this historicism, that is an outdated word that has no analogues in the modern language, but in foreign dictionaries, you can see the mark archaic. Again, the relationship hearken and hear (the present-day. "to listen"), according to etimologicheski dictionaries exist, so to claim that this word means something that has disappeared or fallen into disuse, it is impossible.

But the word phaeton is not archaic. After all, phaetons, four-wheeled open carriages, no longer used, and will forever remain a matter of the past.

Thus, historicism is what characterizes the era. These words have become obsolete together with the phenomena or objects they describe. Archaisms is a legacy unit of speech. They would have been successfully used and today, if they had not pressed a new form.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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