The English colonies in North America. Countries of the former British colony

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2018-03-19 05:20:14

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There are many legends and different degrees of reliability of stories about brave explorers, long before Columbus visited North America. Among them were the Chinese monks approximately in the 5th century landed in California, and Spanish, Portuguese, Irish missionaries and travelers, allegedly visited on the mainland in 6, 7 and 9 centuries. The area of North America is 24.7 million sq km This rich land, of course, were desirable prey for many countries.

The Most reliable information are reports of the Norwegian sailors who visited the continent in centuries 10-14. But the settlements of the Normans fell into disrepair in the 14th century, leaving visible traces in relation to cultural relations between peoples of the European and American continents. In this sense, North America was rediscovered in the 15th century. Before the other Europeans did it to the British.

The First expedition of the British

The Discovery by the British of America was the beginning of the voyage of John Cabot (otherwise it sounds like Giovanni Caboto or Gabotto) and Sebastian, his son, who was not, strictly speaking, indigenous British, and Italians in the service of England. Having received from the king two caravels, Cabot was required to find a sea route to China. Apparently, in 1497 he reached the coast of Labrador (where, incidentally, met Eskimos), and, possibly, Newfoundland, where he met a painted red ochre Indians.

So was first in the 15th century encounter of Europeans with the "Redskins" in North America. In 1498 Cabot expedition again reached the coast of this continent.

The First practical result was the discovery of the rich fishing banks off the coast of Newfoundland already mentioned. Whole fleets of fishing vessels from England reached here, their number is growing every year.

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The Beginning of the colonization

The Colonization of North America began in the 17th century. By this time the British were already competitors in the face of the Spaniards and the French also tried to colonize this continent. The British government believed that Canada is a natural possession of Britain in America, as canadian coast was opened by the expedition of Cabot long before the French. Attempts the base of the possessions was made in the 16th century, but were unsuccessful and the British gold was never found, and agriculture was neglected. Only the beginning of the 17th century appeared the first English colony. They were agricultural.

Thus, the 17th century was the first stage of colonization of this continent.

English colonies in North America

The First permanent English colony in North America in the 17th century

Capitalism in England was largely due to the success of foreign trade and the establishment of monopoly trading companies in the colonies. For this purpose, was established two trading companies, it has significant funds: London (Walinska, or South) and Plymouth (North). They were organized with the help of subscription shares. The Royal Charter of England was put at the disposal of these firms of land located between 34 and 41° North latitude, and indefinitely into the country. Britain acted as if this territory belonged to its government, not the Indians.

Virginia

Sir, Hanford Gilbert received the first Charter authorizing the Foundation of the American colonies. Before you stay and start the job, he undertook an exploratory expedition to Newfoundland, but on the way back was wrecked. Thus, the rights of Gilbert passed to sir Walter Raleigh, his cousin, a favorite of Queen Elizabeth herself. He in 1584 decided to establish a colony South of the Chesapeake Bay, in honor of "the virgin Queen" named it Virginia (from lat. virgo - girl). English map of America thus gained another possession. The next year it went to another group of colonizers who settled in the present North Carolina, on Roanoke island. After one year they returned to their home country, because the selected place was a health hazard. Among these colonists was John white, a famous artist. He brought back many sketches from the life of algaecidal - local Indians. The fate of another group, who arrived in 1587, in Virginia, is unknown.

Virgin commercial company in the early 17th century was carried out the project of creation of the colony, proposed by Walter Raleigh. From this venture is expected large incomes. At his own expense, the company brought settlers are obliged to work for four or five years of your debt.

The Place was founded in 1607 a colony was selected Jamestown, however, was a bad choice. The place was unhealthy, with lots of mosquitoes, swampy. In addition, the British soon became enemies of the Indians. Skirmishes with them and sickness for several months claimed the lives of about two thirds of the colonists.

Life was organized on a war footing. Colonists twice a day gathered together and sent a system to work in the field, every evening they returned for lunch and prayer in Jamestown. John Rolfe, who took "Princess" Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the local tribe Powhatan, his wife, 1613, began to grow tobacco. Since this product was for long an important source of income for the colonists and the Virginia company. Last, encouraging immigration, gave them plots of land. Spent the cost of the road from England to America, the poor also received allotment for which pay fixed payments.

Maryland and Virginia

Later, in 1624, when Virginia (in North America) was considered a Royal colony, and its management passed into the hands of a Governor appointed by the king, this duty became a kind of land tax. Increased immigration of the poor. Thus, in 1640 the population of the colony amounted to 8 thousand inhabitants, in 1700 there were 70 thousand. In Maryland, another English colony, founded in 1634, immediately after the founding of Lord Baltimore gave the colonists, entrepreneurs and planters, earth. Modern map of America has preserved the names of these and other colonies of the time as States.

first English colonies

Maryland, Virginia and specialized in the production of tobacco and therefore was heavily dependent on imported English goods. On large plantations of these colonies the main labor force were poor removed from England. "Indentured servants" as they were called, throughout the 17th century made up the bulk of immigrants in Maryland and Virginia.

Settlers

Their work very soon, however, was replaced by the slave labor of blacks, with the first half of the 17th century delivered in the southern English colonies in North America. The first large batch of them was delivered in 1619 in Virginia.

North America photo

Among the colonists since the 17th century appeared and free settlers. In the North of Plymouth colony went by "the pilgrim fathers" English puritans, some of whom were zealots who had fled England from religious persecution. In November 1620, a ship with pilgrims moored to the Cape Code. Half of them in the first winter died because the settlers, especially in urban areas, could neither cultivate the land nor hunt nor fish. Only with the help of the Indians, who taught arrived to grow corn, the rest in the end survived and even managed to pay the debts for the travel. Founded by the sectarians of Plymouth colony was called new Plymouth.

Massachusetts

The Puritans, who in the reign of the Stuarts oppressed, in 1628 founded the colony of Massachusetts in North America. The Puritan Church had tremendous power in the colony. A local resident, only if acquired the right to vote if he belonged to a Church and had a good recommendation of a preacher. Only one-fifth of the male population in that state had voting rights.

Later, during the English revolution, the colonies map of the UK has widened. There is a new ownership. In the British colonies in North America began to arrive "gentlemen" émigrés-aristocrats who did not want to put up with established a revolutionary regime in the country. They settled mostly in Virginia and the southern colonies.

Carolina

Eight of the court of king Charles II in 1663, received a gift of land located South of Virginia and founded the colony of Carolina (later divided into North and South). Enriched landowners of Virginia tobacco culture spread here. However, in some areas, such as Shenandoah valley in the West of Maryland, and also in wetlands of South Carolina South of Virginia, the conditions for growing this crop was not. Here bred rice, as well as in Georgia.

Caroline courtiers who wanted to get rich in the cultivation of rice, sugar cane, flax, hemp, silk production, Indigo, that is, goods that are scarce in England and imported from other States. Here, in 1696, was brought Malagasy rice variety. Its cultivation has since become the main occupation of local residents for a hundred years. Rice planted on the sea shore and riverine swamps. Hard work shouldered Negro slaves, who made up about half of the population in 1700. In the current state of South Carolina, that is in the southern part of the colony, even stronger than in Virginia established slavery. Large slave-owners were planters in Charleston, cultural and administrative center of the colony, wealthy homes. The heirs of the first owners in 1719 sold to the English crown...


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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