It is Difficult to imagine the size of the Universe. Our own Solar system seems too big, stretching more than 4 trillion miles from the Sun. But it is just one of billions of other stars make up our milky Way galaxy.
A common picture of the Solar system: 9 planets revolve in their orbits around the oval constant, always burning Sun.
But the characteristics of the planets of the Solar system is much more complex and interesting. Besides them, there are a number of their satellites and thousands of asteroids. Far beyond the orbit of Pluto, which was recognized as a dwarf planet, there are thousands of comets and other frozen worlds. Bound by gravity to the Sun, they rotate around it at great distances. The solar system is chaotic, is constantly changing, sometimes dramatically. Gravity force neighboring planets can influence each other, eventually changing each other's orbit. Hard collisions with asteroids can give the planets new angles. Characteristics of the planets in the Solar system are interesting because they change sometimes climatic conditions, because their atmospheres evolve and mutate.
It is sad to realize, but the Sun gradually consumes its stock of nuclear fuel. Through billions of years it will expand to the size of a red giant star will swallow the planets mercury and Venus, on Earth the temperature rises to such indicators that the oceans will evaporate into space, and the Earth will become dry rocky world similar to today's mercury. Having exhausted the entire stock of nuclear fusion, the Sun will shrink to a white dwarf and after millions of years, as the burnt-out shell turn into a black dwarf. But 5 billion years ago the Sun and its 9 planets was not. There are many different versions appearing in the clouds of cosmic gas and dust the Sun as a protostar and its system, but the result of billions of years of nuclear fusion modern man is watching it now.
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With the Earth and other planets of a star called the Sun was born about 4.6 billion years ago from a huge cloud of dust that was spinning in space. Our star – a ball of flaming gases, if it were possible to weigh the Sun, the scales would show 1990 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg of substance consisting of helium and hydrogen.
Gravity, according to scientists, the most mysterious mystery in the universe. This attraction is one matter to another and what makes planets spherical in shape. The gravity of the Sun powerful enough to keep the 9 planets, dozens of satellites and thousands of asteroids and comets. Keep it all around the Sun invisible threads of gravity. But with the increase of distance between space objects, the attraction between them is rapidly eroding. Characteristics of the planets of the Solar system depends on gravity. For example, the gravity of Pluto to the Sun is much smaller than the force of attraction between the Sun and mercury or Venus. The sun and the Earth mutually attract each other, but due to the fact that the mass of the Sun is much more, the attraction from his side is more powerful. Comparative characteristics of the planets of the solar system will help to understand the main features of each of the planets.
The Sun's rays are traveling in different directions in space, achieving all of the nine planets that revolve around the Sun. But depending on how distant the planet, the different amount of light, hence the different characteristics of the planets of the solar system.
On mercury, closest planet to the Sun, the Sun appears 3 times greater compared to earth's Sun. The surface of mercury can be blindingly bright. But the sky is dark even during the day, because IT has no atmosphere to discourage and diffuse sunlight. When the Sun hits the stone landscape of mercury, the temperature can reach up to 430 C. But nevertheless at night all the heat is returned freely in space, and the surface temperature of the planet may fall to –173 P.
Characteristics of planets in the solar system (grade 5 is studying the subject), leads to a consideration of the nearest to the earth planet - Venus. Venus, the second planet from the Sun, surrounded by an atmosphere that consists mainly of gas-carbon dioxide. In such an atmosphere constantly observed of clouds of sulfuric acid. Interestingly, despite the fact that Venus is more distant from the Sun than mercury, its surface temperature up to 480 C. the Reason for this is the carbon dioxide that creates a greenhouse effect and trapping heat on the planet. Venus has a similar size and density of the earth, but the properties of its atmosphere harmful to all living things. Chemical reactions in clouds to produce acid, capable of dissolving lead, tin and stones. In addition, Venus is covered with thousands of volcanoes and rivers of lava that were formed millions of years. Near the surface the atmosphere of Venus is 50 times thicker than Earth's atmosphere. Therefore, all objects, penetrating through her, exploding before come to the surface. Scientists have discovered on Venus is about 400 flat spots, each of which is from 29 to 48 km in diameter. It – the scars of meteorite that exploded above the planet's surface.
The Land where we all live, has ideal atmospheric and temperature conditions for life, because our atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. Scientists prove that the Earth revolves around the Sun, leaning on one side. Indeed, the position of the planet deviates from a right angle to 23.5 degrees. This tilt, as well as its size, according to scientists, our planet is received after a powerful collision with a cosmic body. It's this tilt of the Earth forms the seasons: winter, spring, summer and autumn.
After Earth comes Mars. On Mars the Sun appears three times smaller than on Earth. Only a third of light compared to what I see earthlings, gets Mars. In addition on this planet are frequent hurricanes, raising the red dust from the surface. But, nevertheless, in summer, the temperature on Mars can reach 17, as on Earth. Mars has a red color because minerals with iron oxide in its soil discourage reddish - orange light of the Sun, in other words, the Martian soil is composed of a lot of rusty iron, so Mars often called the red planet. The Martian air is very thin -1 the percentage of the density of earth's atmosphere. The planet's atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide. Scientists admit that on this planet once, about 2 billion years ago were the river and the water in the liquid state, and the atmosphere contained oxygen, because the iron is covered with rust only in the interaction with oxygen. It is possible that the atmosphere of Mars was once suitable for the emergence on this planet of life.
As for chemical and physical parameters, the following characteristics of the planets of the Solar system (table for the terrestrial planets).
The Chemical composition of the atmosphere
-30 to + 40
0.01 - 0.1
From -70 to 0
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