Yakov Yurovsky, the biography of which will be the topic of our today's article, was a Russian revolutionary, Soviet statesman and party leader, chekist. He directly supervised the execution of Nicholas II, the last Russian Emperor and his family.
Yakov Yurovsky (his real name and middle name - Yankel Haimovich) was born 7 (19) June 1878 in the town of Kainsk of the Tomsk province (Kuybyshev from 1935). He was the eighth of ten children and grew up in a large Jewish working-class family.
Mother was a seamstress, father – a glazier. Jacob was in elementary school in the river district, and in 1890 began to learn the craft. He then worked as an apprentice in Tomsk, Tobolsk, Feodosia, Ekaterinodar, Batumi.
To the revolutionary activities of Yakov Yurovsky (photo below) joined in Tomsk in 1905. There is some indirect evidence that he first took part in combat organizations of the Bund, and then following the example of his close friend, Sverdlov joined the Bolsheviks.
Yurovsky distributed Marxist literature, and when the underground press collapsed, was forced to leave Russia and settled in Berlin, where he converted to Lutheranism along with his entire family (three children and wife Maria Yakovlevna).
In 1912 Yakov illegally returned to Russia, but he was tracked down and arrested the secret police agents. Jurowski for “harmful” was expelled from Tomsk, but he was allowed to choose the place of residence. So he found himself in Ekaterinburg.
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In the Urals city of Yakov Yurovsky opened the hour and a photography shop, and as he describes it, to his “found fault with the gendarmerie", forcing him to take photos of prisoners and suspects. However, at the same time, his Studio was a laboratory for the production of passports for the Bolsheviks.
Yurovsky in 1916, was called as a nurse in a local hospital. So he was in the soldier mass active agitator. After the February revolution Jacob sold the photography shop and organized with the money of the Bolshevik printing house under the name of “Ural worker”. Jurowski became a prominent Bolshevik, a member of the Council of soldiers ' deputies and of workers, one of the leaders of the revolution in the Urals.
In the story of Yakov Yurovsky came in as Manager and one of the main participants in the execution of the sentence about the execution of Tsar Nicholas II and his family. In July 1918 he was appointed commandant of the Ipatiev house, and it is the decision of the Ural Soviet on the night of 16 to 17 July directly led the execution of the execution of the Royal family.
There is a version that Yakov Yurovsky for the implementation of the execution made a special document containing the list of executioners. However, the results of the historical studies show that such an instrument provided at the time an Austrian former prisoners of war, I. P. Meier and published in 1984 by E. E. Alferiev in the United States, most likely, fabricated and does not display a list of participants in the execution.
When, on 25 July 1918 in Ekaterinburg became white, Yakov Yurovsky moved to Moscow and became a member of the Moscow Cheka and head of the district Cheka. After returning to Ekaterinburg Bolsheviks, he was appointed Chairman of the Ural Gubchk. Jurowski settled almost directly in front, firing home in the rich mansion of Agushevich. In 1921, he was sent to the head of the gold division to the Gokhran with the aim of ‘ghosts of the stored values in the liquid state”.
Then Jacob worked in the currency Department of people's Commissariat of foreign where he was the Chairman of the trade Department, and in 1923 took up the post of Deputy Director of the plant "Red hero". Since 1928, Yurovsky worked as a Director of the Moscow Polytechnic Museum. He died in 1938 from perforation of a duodenal ulcer (the official version).
Yurovsky had a large family. With his wife they had three children: daughter Rimma (1898), sons Alexander (1904) and Eugene (1909). Lived comfortably, and kept servants. In the upbringing of offspring of the head of the family, always busy in the service of, is not particularly involved, but in which case punished severely. All heirs have received higher education.
Jacob was very fond of daughter-the honors pupil, the black-haired beauty. She gave him a grandchild Anatolia. But, apparently, indeed, the descendants have to pay for the sins of the fathers. All the grandchildren Jurowski in a fatal coincidence, were killed (one burned down in the fire, another has poisoned with mushrooms, the third one hanged himself, another fell from the roof of the barn), and so do the girls died in infancy. The grandson of Roofing, beloved grandfather, dead at the wheel of a car.
Misfortune overtook and Rimma. Her major Komsomol leader, in 1935, was arrested and sent to Karaganda camp for political prisoners. She was in custody there until 1946. He died in 1980.
Son Alexander was a rear Admiral of the Navy. In 1952 he was persecuted, but soon, when Stalin died, was released. He died in 1986.
The Younger son was an officer in the Navy, a Lieutenant Colonel. He died in 1977.
In Vain to look for the burial place of the notorious “hero of the revolution" in the popular Metropolitan cemeteries-Vagankovskoye, Novodevichy… for a long time it was not known where the tomb of Yakov Yurovsky. As it turned out, his body was cremated and carefully concealed the ashes from third-party eyes on a special area of the cemetery – spectrumware at the New Donskoy cemetery in Moscow's historical district.
There is evidence that this isolated mausoleum-columbarium organized thanks to the assertiveness of Paul Dauge – a prominent party member and the first maker ORREC. Equipped with seat «VIP-graves” in the former building of the Church. In Stalinist times, dashing here was placed the urn containing the ashes of the honored individuals who managed by some miracle to avoid total repression and died a natural death.
Many cells are now “nameless” as firmly imbedded in the wall of the glass fogged up from the inside and covered with a murky tinge, which does not allow anything to see.
In the depths of the structure in the alcove stand two urns, draped in red-and-black mourning ribbons so that there are no visible inscriptions. These are the ashes of Yurovsky and his wife. Around the boxes, several of artificial flowers with faded fabric – all visible neglect, it is noticeable that the burial was renovated not long ago.
They Say that fire erases all traces. But for regicide, the remains of which were in spectrumware, this law did not work: his trail disappeared. At the time Yurovsky did everything to hide forever the bodies of the Imperial family, but his own grave in the end, was carefully hidden from the people. Former hero-the Commissioner is now forever turned into a pariah....
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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