International protection of human rights is carried out by special bodies: the Committee on human rights of the UN, the European Court of justice with the Council of Europe.
The main sources of international law, which reglamentary protection of human interests, is the European Convection for the protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights, the Charter on human rights, the Final act on security and cooperation in Europe.
International protection of the rights and freedoms of the person associated with the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. He was convinced that mankind in a primitive natural state was in a state of war of all against all. Only after the emergence of the state has a chance at a normal life, the protection of the rights of ordinary citizens.
The Englishman believed that relations between different States war is inevitable, because the state has no controlling and constraining structures.
The international system of human rights protection has become particularly relevant in the XX century, which has gone through two brutal world wars, which was attended by many of the world powers. It was during this period and was observed the most criminal and inhumane treatment of civilians, prisoners of war.
After the First world war, in 1920, originated the Foundation of international protection of human rights. Created the League of Nations was the first organization of international level, which aims to put the preservation of peace and improving the quality of life on our planet. Lack of coordination between countries that become parties to it did not allow the League of Nations to develop a comprehensive system of collective security. This organization ceased to exist in 1946, had an interstate structure – UN.
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Its main task was the development of measures aimed at protecting the interests of citizens around the world. The UN has emerged as a response to crimes against people committed by Nazi Germany and its allies during the Second world war. When the UN formed the Charter of human rights, often referred to as the International bill of human rights.
As a regulatory framework are:
As a Supplement was prepared dozens of declarations and treaties that are subject to international protection of human rights in times of peace. Documents associated with genocide, racial discrimination, rights of persons with disabilities, the status of refugees.
After the adoption of the first document specified in the list, began a period in which international legal protection of the rights and freedoms of man ceased to be an internal affair of each state.
The universal Declaration enshrines the basic rights of all inhabitants of our planet regardless of ethnicity, race, language, confession, gender.
It contains the international protection of human rights:
It refers To the inadmissibility of slavery, torture, humiliation of human dignity. Wherever a citizen, he should be available to the international protection of the rights and freedoms of the person.
Part of the provisions of the Constitution of our country is almost completely duplicates the material of the universal Declaration of human rights.
The international Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights reglementary the formation of free from want and fear of human personality. This can be achieved only under the conditions that each will have the opportunity to enjoy the rights to work, leisure, fair remuneration, decent living standards, social security, freedom from hunger.
International protection of human rights in terms of this Covenant involves providing opportunities for citizens to participate actively in cultural life.
In addition to the above rights, the international Covenant also refers to other possibilities:
This document gives the citizens of those countries that signed the agreement to protect their political and civil rights. It is on the basis of this document by international and European protection of human rights.
Our country has accepted obligations under the agreement in 1991. Note that the decisions of the Committee are not considered mandatory, its mandate is the recommendation for the state to restore the violated rights. This Committee also has the right to involvement in such activities of the world public opinion.
Is a Supplement to the Covenant on political and civil rights, suggested the abolition of the death penalty. International protection of the rights of man and citizen within the European community is the Council of Europe, as well as special document that reglamentary human rights action – Jewish Convection on the protection of the rights and freedoms of the individual. The document was adopted in 1950.
International legal protection of human rights in the context of this document deals with the provision of:
To this Convention applied by several additional protocols. One of them is focused on the protection of property, freedom of elections.
This document prohibits the imprisonment if the citizen's debt. The sixth Protocol abolished the death penalty.
Our country has acceded to the Convention only in 1998. Now every Russian who finds that his unjustly punished, can use international mechanisms for the protection of human rights.
This body makes from citizens ' complaints in the following situations:
If the decision is made in favor of the victim, in this case, the European Court, that person is awarded compensation for violated rights.
Decisions of this court are final, they are not subject to appeal, are binding on the member countries, including Russia.
The Organization for security and cooperation in Europe works to protect the rights of citizens. It was established in 1975. Then was signed the Act of the conference on security and cooperation in Europe. In addition to recognizing the sovereign equality of all countries, inviolability of state borders, non-use of force, the Act declares the need to protect the freedoms and rights of citizens, including freedom of conscience, thought, belief and religion.
After the adoption of this document in the Soviet Union there was organized a human rights movement in the form of “the Helsinki groups”, who demanded from the authorities to fully comply with international law.
Human rights Defenders have been subjected to the links, arrests, repression, but their activities led to the fact that the authorities changed their position with regard to the protection of human rights.
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