Why of Sevastopol has a special status? The History Of Sevastopol. The status of Sevastopol in the Soviet Union

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2018-03-18 13:55:39

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From the Greek Sevastopol is translated as “the famous city”. This place has mastered many centuries ago. So, five hundred years before the new era there existed the Greek colony – the famous town of Hersonissos. The selection of this place was due to the following: along the black sea coast you'll find no more convenient Bay.why the special status of Sevastopol

Further development

The twelfth one Hundred year BC was marked by the occurrence of Chersonesos in the composition of Pontic-Bosporan Kingdom, and then he became part of the great Empire-Rome. After the fall of the last town came under the wing of Byzantium. Soon the Chersonese was to be the control center of the Byzantine colonies on the black sea coast. Rapidly it developed trade and industry. The Russian princes first heard of the Chersonese, when he was called Korsun (IX-XIII centuries).

In the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries the history of Sevastopol has reached a new milestone: the city was conquered by the Ottomans and lost its importance because it was simply not interesting to the new rulers. The port city was no longer administrative centres, and their places were taken by the settlements in the center of the Peninsula. So, Yalta got the status of capital of the khans, of particular significance was the AK-Mosque (1748 Simferopol) and Karasubazar. They were far from the sea.

All changes

Subsequently, the Crimea became part of Russian Empire. In 1783, Catherine II ordered the construction of the city to the village of Akhtiar, who was near the ruins of Korsun (Chersonesos).history of Sevastopol

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Why of Sevastopol has a special status? The fact that since inception, it has played a role of the main base of the entire black sea fleet. The city has always had a huge military and political significance.

Four years after the formation of the status of Sevastopol was finally established: the city has come to represent a naval port, he was transferred to the civil administration of Crimea. Thus, in 1767, there was a separation of the city from the Taurus region and its place in the naval ports of national importance. The history of Sevastopol was replenished with a new fact: he moved in complete submission to St. Petersburg and became a separate administrative district. The town was ruled by the naval administration. Of course, it is administered from St. Petersburg.

Twenty-third day of February 1804 the Emperor Alexander the First issued a decree which secured the special status of Sevastopol as the main military port. When this simple merchant ships to enter it was forbidden. The only exception vessels in distress. After the repairs they were required to immediately leave the port.

The Thirtieth of April, 1809, was extended to the city. Sevastopol became the main fortress on the black sea. Since it raised the same land of flag, as in Vyborg, Kronstadt and Sveaborg.

The Barbaric destruction

In 1853 broke out the Crimean war. Enemies besieged Sevastopol-a city of sailors – over three hundred and forty-nine days. In the end, he was ruined, and together with it – and the entire black sea fleet (it was sunk at anchor by order of Admiral Nakhimov). In 1856 the Crimean war came to an end. Was signed the Paris peace. According to this document, Russia was forbidden to re-organize the fleet in Sevastopol. Until 1871 he was a market town and customs station. After the cancellation of the aforementioned global compact Alexander II restored the status of Sevastopol as the Central naval port of the Empire on the Black sea. 1875 marked by the construction of Railways, connecting Sevastopol to St. Petersburg and Moscow. In 1891, construction was completed on Vladimir Church, and a year later was the opening of the Museum in Chersonesos. So, by 1894, the city has completely restored its status. Naval base in Sevastopol regained its former importance. The stocks of the Admiralty was not empty: there was construction of warships of different classes (even a squadron of battleships).photo Sevastopol city

Badge

It is Noteworthy that Sevastopol was approved by a special emblem. Its principal distinguishing feature was a clear national importance. No city, provincial or regional emblem could not be proud of it. So, it was a picture of a red shield (like the capital) behind him – two crossed anchors gold color (like all great port cities, e.g. St. Petersburg). The logo was selected Griffin – as the house of Romanov, but not red on a silver field, and Vice versa, symbolizing the historical and not the ancestral, biological, or dynastic succession. This confirms once again a particular military-historical position of the city.

So why Sevastopol's special status, even despite the fact that he was considered a fortress of the third class? After all, he just was not sufficient of the fortifications to level up! Despite a poor fortification-technical equipment for Russia, the Sevastopol (the area of the city – nineteen thousand hectare) has always been very important. All is simple: it represented the only major fortification on all Maritime southern boundary of the state.

New direction

Since the beginning of the twentieth century more and more tourists began to be interested in the Black sea. Sevastopol began to develop as a resort. Built numerous hotels, boarding houses. In 1914, the opening of the Romanovsky Institute of physical methods of treatment. Specialists has been actively studied the impact of the Crimean air, mud and sea bathing on human health. In the biological station has carefully studied the flora and fauna of the Black sea. Later, the institution was transformed into a major research center. On its base was opened Aquarium marine fish. For Russia, this was new.

The Revolutionary spirit

Sevastopol has not remained aloof from the events of the first Russian revolution. As you know, over the battleship "Potemkin" in June 1905 proudly hoisted the red flag, and in November of this year, by vessels belonging to the black sea fleet uprising began, led by Lieutenant Schmidt. Soon the rebellion was put down and its instigators expected execution.

Wartime

Russia's Entry into the First world war happened in 1914. At the end of October the German cruiser “heben” fired on Sevastopol. The enemy attack was repulsed cruiser “George” and the shore batteries. Russian Navy, bravely overcoming difficulties, succeeded in the battles on the waters of the Black sea.

As a result of careful mining of the Bosphorus Strait, the enemy lost one minelayer, one hundred and twenty sailing vessels and eleven transports. The aforementioned battleship “heben" hit a mine on the thirteenth day of December, 1914.Sevastopol is a city of sailors

Only in the First world thanks to the efforts of the black sea fleet was destroyed up to fifty Turkish ships and about three hundred other ships. In 1915, he was added to the two battleships, five eskadrennyj destroyers, six submarines and two air with seaplanes on Board.

A Huge role in the success of the Russian fleet given to Admiral Kolchak. He took command of the fleet in 1916. Admiral has developed the plan of capture of the Bosphorus Strait and attack Istanbul, but his ideas made the revolution of 1917.

Status of Sevastopol in the Soviet Union

Remnants of the White Army were evacuated from the city in November 1920. The command of the process adopted General Wrangel. Together with the troops of Sevastopol left and the final judgment of the black sea fleet. From this moment begins the Soviet history of the city. Along with this revived Red Navy. Again began to function Sevastopol marine plant. He carried out orders for repair and construction of ships. Created more modern ships, has intensified the defense of the city from the shore, was built airfields and coastal batteries.

The Status of Sevastopol in the Soviet Union recovered. The city again became an important naval center, he was actively rebuilt after combat damage. In 1926 was inaugurated the art Museum and drama theatre. In the vicinity of the town was formed wine farms. At that time the city was inhabited by about one hundred thousand people (if you include the mariners).

Again, war…

Already established peaceful life of the city was interrupted by the great Patriotic war. The twenty-second of June 1941, Sevastopol residents saw four enemy aircraft, flying in a troubled sky. It began at 3.15 am with a fifteen-minute intervals. Each aircraft had two bottom magnetic mines to block the exit from the city's Harbor. Forces of the black sea fleet of the enemy answered with artillery fire. An hour earlier, the people's Commissar of the Navy on the black sea fleet Kuznetsov gave an order to declare operational readiness number one. As a result of his foresight of the enemy's plan for the complete mining of the Bay and the destruction of locked vehicles were broken. Only three of the eight dropped the shells fell on the fairway.

The German command decision to attack Sevastopol. Map of the city suggests that this can be done...


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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