The means of verbal expression. Allegory, irony, hyperbole


2018-03-18 08:20:36




1Like 0Dislike


Russian language – one of the most varied and richest in the world, its expressive potential is truly enormous. Special emotionality and originality of the text into different means of verbal expression used in the process of writing works. The list is quite extensive.

Tools of speech expressiveness in various spheres of life

It's No secret that the same idea can be presented in different ways. For example, a television announcer will say: “Today in the region experienced abundant rainfall in the form of snow, accompanied by heavy wind”. And two old ladies who drink in the kitchen tea, conversation can use this phrase: “Yes, bulk-like snow! And wind – so with your legs and knocks!” In the literature this phenomenon can be represented as follows: “the Snow flakes fell from the sky like fluff from a pillow ripped open, razmeshenie strong wind and huge white drifts hid the longing for him, frozen ground…”. The painting is described in various ways, almost the same, but each differs from each other and different influences on the unconscious man. All means of speech expressiveness of the language in one way or another based on the associative perception of the text. Looking through submitted statements, the reader is the people who may say so. Therefore, the characteristics of the characters, creating a certain flavor of artistic texts using different styles.

linguistic means of speech expressiveness

Phonetic expressive means

For the greatest impact on the imagination of the interlocutor or reader, viewer or listener, using a variety of methods. The means of verbal expression literally permeates all language levels. They can be observed both in phonetics and in syntax, which makes understanding the author's intention in a more deep and comprehensive. Phonetic means of verbal expression are one of the most powerful ways of speech influence. The feeling of the sound image of the word takes place at the subconscious level, regardless of the wishes of the person. That is why most of the poetry is based on the use of sound materials. As example is this sentence: “Rustled the leaves, their rustling seemed to come from everywhere”. Here repeated use of the sound “W” in the phrase as if to the accompaniment creates a painted picture of imagination.


"Knowledge is light and ignorance is darkness": the value, meaning and alternatives

There are some sayings that would seem to need no explanation, such as “teaching & ndash; light and ignorance – darkness”. But some still do not understand their meaning. But not only for such people is written by our article. I...

What was invented by Mendeleev for the army. The history and fate of the invention

What was invented by Mendeleev for the army. The history and fate of the invention

D. I. Mendeleev was a brilliant Russian scientist-polymath, who made many important discoveries in various fields of science and technology. Many people know that he is the author of “Fundamentals of chemistry" and the periodic law of chem...

The origin of the Slavs. The influence of different cultures

The origin of the Slavs. The influence of different cultures

Slavs (under this name), according to some researchers, appeared in the story only in 6 century ad. However, the language of nationality bears the archaic features of the Indo-European community. This, in turn, suggests that the origin of the Slavs h...

phonetic means of speech expressiveness


Phonetic speech expression has some variability. Widespread are opposed to each other means as alliteration and assonance. They are based on the repetition in the text is the same or similar on any phonetic basis of sounds – consonant with vowel alliteration, and assonance when. A striking example of alliteration could be the phrase “the Storm rattles, rumbles of thunder” reading that people subconsciously cause ourselves a vivid image of crackling lightning.


A Little less writers and poets use repetition of vowels. For example, assonance provided in the proposal “everything was smooth field,” – duplicate the sound “about” creates a sense of length, breadth of space.

anaphora epiphora

Anaphora, epiphora in fiction

Allocates and other figures of speech, used to add expressiveness to the text. For example, the unusual techniques are anaphora and epiphora. They are a variation of the repetition of similar sounds, words or groups of words at the beginning (anaphora) or end (epiphora) of each parallel independent segment of speech. “It – you a man! It – the act of a true man!” – injection and increased with each repetition observed in the anaphora. The epiphora often can be found in the end of the poetic segments in the form of a repetition of certain phrases, or whole sentences. But it can be seen and selected prose sentence: “Everyone in this room was black: the walls were black, carpet on the floor was also black, lamps – black, and even bedding were cast in black. Only the bed was pure white, creating a bright contrast in the design”.

verbal expressiveness

Linguistic means of speech expressiveness: an allegory

In the style of the Russian language presents a huge variety of tropes, or figures of speech. The main source of expression is language. It is implemented using most of the author's intentions in the text. For example, allegory – a kind of transfer values or characteristics of the object to another object, the image of an abstract concept through a concrete image. To explain what the allegory, you can resort to the traditional consideration of examples: the sun – a symbol of warmth, of kindness; the wind – a symbol of freedom, free-thinking, impermanence. So often this principle is in the speech used to characterize people. “Oh, you sly Fox!” - talking about someone as a joke. Or can even tell about non-permanent identity: “the Nature of his flighty, frivolous”. Thus, answering the question about what is allegory, reference is made to symbolism, comparing items for quality.

what is an allegory

Allegory in parables, fairy tales, fables

Great fabulist Krylov gives a vivid picture of the use of this technique. Although in reality he is a follower of Aesop. It is of his works were taken many of the stories of the fables of the Russian classic. It is clear to everyone that saying about a monkey trying on sunglasses in the tail, the author is referring to the ignorant person who used to treat everything superficially, to judge hastily, without thinking about the meaning. For the child's perception are best suited tales where the heroes are animals. For example, the kid learns the basic laws of life: a good deed is never lost, slut, a liar and lazy will be punished, not allowed to laugh at someone else's pain, etc. a Short fable or allegorical tale reminiscent of drinking toasts in Caucasian style, at the end of which morality is displayed after a drink “...”.

tools of speech expressiveness

Allegory in poetry and lyrical songs

A wonderful Lermontov's poem about a lonely sail, running on waves? Because here the thoughtful reader is drawn to the troubled mental state of the individual that no one understands in the contemporary world. Still adults like many folk songs, in which allegorical examples of plants-flowers, trees – it describes human relationships. “standing, swaying, thin Rowan?” sadly sings the girl that she is alone, wants to unite his fate with a reliable person, but for some reason can't make it...

tools of speech expressiveness

Litotes, hyperbole

Linguistic means of speech expressiveness presented and other trails. For example, there are such opposite figures as hyperbole, litotes. Russian language has a wide range of possibilities of gradable expressions qualities. These techniques represent the art of the understatement (litotes) and exaggeration (hyperbole). Russian language becomes figurative and brighter thanks to them. For example, such a property is the volume of the human body, can be expressed as artificially understated (the"waist width with the neck of the bottle" - litotes), and exaggeration ("shoulders the size in the doorway" - hyperbole). Russian language even boasts of sustainable expressions of the type: wasp waist, high as Kolomenskaya versta.

hyperbole litotes

Synonyms and antonyms in fiction

Using in the text synonyms and antonyms enhances its emotionality and expressiveness. Words semantically similar or different to diversify the work reveals the author's intent in different ways. In addition, the synonyms and antonyms simplify perception of the text, so as to clarify the meaning of the individual semantic objects. But their use in speech and writing should be approached with caution, as some dictionary synonyms lose the closeness of the values in a specific context, and context antonyms not always are antonymous in its basic dictionary meaning. For example, the adjectives "fresh" and "stale" when you use them with the noun "bread" are antonyms. But, if we are talking about the wind, the antonym to the adjective "fresh" is the word "warm".

The Irony in works of art

A Very important means of artistic expression – the irony. Examples from the literature prove the high imagery of this technique. Pushkin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky – these Russian classics are the real masters...

Article in other languages:













Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

Comments (0)

This article has no comment, be the first!

Add comment

Related News

The beginning of the Second world war: the main causes

The beginning of the Second world war: the main causes

the Most ambitious, bloody and terrible war in human history called the Second world war, began not on 1 September 1939, the day when Nazi Germany attacked Poland. The beginning of the Second world war was inevitable since the end...

Professionalism is... the meaning of the term, examples

Professionalism is... the meaning of the term, examples

in Addition to the common words in the Russian language there are words that are used much less frequently. These include various jargon words and phrases, used in professional speech. Professionalism – this is the words tha...

Is it possible cryogenically freezing a living person?

Is it possible cryogenically freezing a living person?

Cryogenic freezing – something out of science fiction. Anyway, it might seem that a few decades ago. Now many are seriously interested in the question of whether you will discover at one moment to freeze, and then “ord...

Magnetic field characteristics magnetic field

Magnetic field characteristics magnetic field

To understand what is a characteristic of a magnetic field, you should define many phenomena. In advance need to remember how and why it appears. To know what is the power characteristics of the magnetic field. Thus it is importan...

Water in Human Life and

Water in Human Life and "Brick in the Toilet!"

known Eastern simple truth is, quite accurately establishing the importance of the statements about water and that the role of water in human life is truly unique. Really, who would contradict the truth that water is life. After a...

Why do we need language? Why should you learn languages?

Why do we need language? Why should you learn languages?

We often hear that you need to know the native language, you need to know other languages. But for what purpose? Why should you learn languages? The funny thing is that most often it is talking to their children parents do not kno...