Among the variety of terms that we use, taking the conversation about the world around us, there is one born during the Civil war and lived up to our days, but received a completely different meaning. The movement «green». In ancient times, the so-called insurgency of peasants, to defend with arms their rights. Today so-called community of people, protecting the rights of nature surrounding us.
The"Green" movement during the Civil war – is the mass of the peasants against the main contenders for the seizure of power in the country – the Bolsheviks, the white guards and foreign interventionists. As a rule, the governing bodies of the state, they saw loose Boards, formed in the result independent of the will of all citizens and alien to all forms of destination on top.
The "green" Movement was of great importance during the war, because his main power – farmers – were the majority of the population. From someone of the warring parties they will support, often depended on the course of the Civil war in General. This is well understood by all involved in the fighting and tried to attract the multimillion peasant masses. However, not always succeeded, and then the opposition took an extreme form.
For example, in the Central part of Russia, the attitude of peasants towards Bolsheviks was twofold. On the one hand, they supported them after the decree on land, to secure for the peasants the landlords ' land, on the other hand, wealthy farmers and the majority of middle peasants spoke out against the food policy of the Bolsheviks and forced withdrawal of the products of agriculture. This duality is reflected in the Civil war.
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Socially alien to the peasants the white movement is also rarely found them. Despite the fact that in the ranks of the white army were many of the villagers, most of them were recruited by force. This is evidenced by the numerous memoirs of participants of those events. In addition, whites often forced the peasants to the various household duties, does not compensate for the time spent and effort. It also caused dissatisfaction.
The"Green" movement in the Civil war against the Bolsheviks, as it was said, was caused mainly by the dissatisfaction with the policy of the surplus, destined to death by starvation of thousands of peasant families. That is why the main passions came in 1919-1920, the year when the forcible seizure of agricultural products adopted a wide scale.
Among the most active performances against the Bolsheviks, can be called the green movement in the Stavropol region, which began in April 1918, followed a year of mass peasant uprising in the Volga region. According to some reports, it was attended by 180 000 people. In General, in the first half of 1019 occurred 340 armed actions, covering more than twenty provinces.
The"Green" movement during the Civil war tried to use for political purposes the representatives of the parties of the socialist-revolutionaries and Mensheviks. They have developed a joint course of action aimed at two fronts. Their opponents they announced as the Bolsheviks, and leaders of the white movement A. V. Kolchak, A. I. Denikin. This program was called “Third way” and was, according to them, the struggle against the reaction of the left and right. However, the socialist party, far from the peasant masses, could not unite significant forces.
The Most popular slogan proclaiming “third way», received in Ukraine, where for a long time led military action peasant rebel army under the command of N. I. Makhno. Noted that the main backbone consisted of the wealthy farmers successfully engaged in farming and selling bread.
They are actively involved in the redistribution of the landed estates and had pinned great hopes for it. As a result, their farm became the objects of numerous requisitions, conducted alternately by the Bolsheviks, the white guards and interventionists. Squatter in Ukraine, the green movement became a response to such lawlessness.
The Special character of Makhno's army gave anarchism, the adherents of which were as the commander-in-chief and most of his commanders. In this idea the most appealing was the theory of “social” revolution, destroying all the power of the state and eliminating, thus, the main instrument of violence against the person. The main provision of the program Makhno was the national government and the rejection of any form of dictatorship.
No less powerful and widespread the green movement was observed in the Tambov province and the Volga region. On behalf of his head of it was called «Antonov». In these areas farmers in September 1917, took control of landed estates and began to actively develop them. Accordingly, increased their standard of living, and there is opened a favourable prospect. When in 1919 began a large-scale surplus, and people began to take away the fruits of their labor, this has caused the sharpest reaction and forced the peasants to take up arms. They had something to protect.
Special level struggle took in 1920, when in Tambov had a severe drought that destroyed most of the harvest. In these difficult circumstances that still managed to collect, were seized in favor of the red Army and the citizens. As a result of such actions of the authorities of the popular uprising that swept several counties. It was attended by about 4 000 armed peasants and more than 10,000 people with pitchforks and scythes. Leader and inspirer of the people's movement became a member of the socialist revolutionary party of A. S. Antonov.
He and other leaders of the "green" movement, put forward a clear and simple messages, understandable to every villager. Chief among them was the call to fight with the Communists to build a free peasant Republic. We should pay tribute to his commanding abilities and ability to carry out flexible guerrilla warfare.
As a result, the revolt soon spread to other areas and took on an even larger scale. The Bolshevik government made massive efforts to suppress it in 1921. For this purpose, in Tambov was aimed shot with the White front part, headed by M. N. Tukhachevsky and G. I. Kotovsky.
Faded away fighting in the Civil war, and gone are the events, which have been described above. Much of that era is forever gone, but it's amazing – in our everyday life preserved the term "Green movement”, although he acquired a completely different meaning. If at the beginning of the last century this phrase meant the struggle for the interests of those who cultivated the land, in our days, the members of the movement fighting for the preservation of the nurse-land with all its natural resources.
“Green” - the environmental movement of today, which is opposed to the pernicious influence of negative factors of technical progress on the environment. In our country, they appeared in the mid-eighties of the last century and during its history went through several stages of development. According to data published late last year, the number of environmental groups in a nationwide movement that reaches thirty thousand.
Among the most famous − movement “Green”, “homeland”, “Green patrol” and a number of other organizations. Each of them has its own characteristics, but they all share the commonality task and the mass enthusiasm that is inherent in their members. In General, this sector of society exists in the form of non-governmental organizations. It is a kind of third sector, not related to any government agencies, nor to private businesses.
The Political platform of the representatives of modern "green" movement is based on a constructive approach to the restructuring of the economic policy of the state in the harmonious combination of the interests of people and their environment. In such matters there can be no compromise, because their solution depends not only the material welfare of people but also their health and life.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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