The collapse of the old Russian state: history, causes and consequences

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2018-03-18 07:20:47

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Collapse of the old Russian state is one of the most important and significant processes in the early middle Ages. The destruction of Kievan Rus left a huge imprint on the history of the Eastern Slavs and the whole of Europe. To name the exact date of the beginning and end of the fragmentation is difficult. The greatest country in the world was decomposed almost 2 centuries, drowning in the blood of civil wars and foreign invasions.the collapse of the old Russian state Book "the Collapse of Ancient States: brief" is required reading in all history departments in the post-Soviet space.

The First signs of the crisis

The reasons for the collapse of Ancient States similar to the reasons for the fall of all powerful States of the Ancient world. Independence from Central rulers on the ground was integral to the progress and development of feudalism. The starting point can be considered the death of Yaroslav the Wise. Before that, Russia was ruled by the descendants of Rurik, was invited to the reign of the Vikings. Over time, the rule of this dynasty embraced all the lands of the state. In every major city sat a descendant of the Prince. All of them were obliged to pay tribute to the center and put the squad in case of war or raids on other people's land. The Central government met in Kiev, which was not only political but also cultural center of Russia.

The Weakening of Kiev

The Collapse of Ancient States last but not least was the result of the weakening of Kiev. There is a new trade route (for example, "from the Vikings to the Greeks"), which was to bypass the capital. Also on the ground some of the princes have made independent raids on the nomads and left the stolen wealth to themselves, allowing them to develop autonomously from the center. After Yaroslav's death it turned out that the Rurik dynasty is huge, and everyone wants to gain power.

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The Younger sons of the great princes died, it began a protracted civil war. The sons of Yaroslav tried to divide Russia, finally abandoning the Central government.the collapse of the old Russian state a Number of principalities is devastated by the wars. These are the Polovtsians, a nomad people of southern steppes. They attack and ravage the land border, each time going farther. Some princes attempted to repel raids, but to no avail.

The World in Lyubech

Vladimir Monomakh convene the Congress of princes in Liubech. The main purpose of the gathering was an attempt to prevent endless feuds and unite under one banner to repel the nomads. All present agree. However, the decision was made to change the internal policy of Russia. the consequences of the collapse of the old Russian stateNow each Prince have full authority over their possessions. He had to participate in common campaigns and coordinate with other principalities. But he abolished the tribute and other taxes to the center.

This agreement helped to stop the bloody civil war, but catalyzed the beginning of the disintegration of the Ancient Russian state. In fact, Kiev has lost its power. But it remained the cultural center of Russia. The rest of the territory was divided into approximately 15 States"lands" (different sources indicate the presence of 12 and 17 such entities). Almost to the mid-12th century 9 principalities was peace. Each throne was inherited that influenced the emergence of dynasties in the land. Between the neighbors were mostly friendly relations, and the Prince of Kiev was still considered "first among equals".

Therefore, for Kiev was a tough battle. Few princes can rule in capital and counties. The constant change of various dynasties gave the city and the neighborhood to decline. One of the first examples in the world of the Republic was the Principality of Novgorod. Here the privileged nobles (descendants of combatants who received land) firmly established the power, significantly limiting the influence of the Prince. All basic decisions in a popular Assembly, and the "leader" was assigned the functions of the Manager.

The Invasion

The Final collapse of the old Russian state took place after the Mongol invasion. Feudal fragmentation contributed to the development of individual provinces. Each city was ruled directly by the Prince, who, being in place, we can properly allocate resources. This contributed to the improvement of the economic situation and the significant development of culture. But at the same time significantly dropped the defense capacity of Russia. Despite Lyubecheskogo the world, has experienced civil war for a Duchy. Them actively involved Polovtsian tribes.the final collapse of the old Russian state

By the mid-13th century Rus was facing a terrible threat - the invasion of the Mongols from the East. This invasion of nomads were preparing for several decades. In 1223 has occurred RAID. Its purpose was the exploration and familiarization with Russian troops and culture. After that Batu Khan was planning to attack and enslave Russia as a whole. First we had the Ryazan land. Them the Mongols destroyed in a few weeks.

Destruction

The Mongols successfully used the internal situation in Russia. Principality, though not at odds with each other, were a completely independent policy and in no hurry to help each other. Everyone was waiting for the defeat of the neighbor to have with it its own benefit. But that all changed after the complete destruction of several cities Ryazanschine. The Mongols used the tactic of raids across the state. In total, the RAID took part from 300 to 500 thousand people (including troops recruited from conquered peoples). While Russia could not put more than 100 thousand people from all the principalities. The Slavic forces had superiority in weaponry and tactics. However, the Mongols tried to avoid pitched battles and preferred a quick surprise attack. The superiority of numbers gave the opportunity to bypass the major cities from different angles.

Resistance

Despite the balance of forces 5 to 1, Rus gave a fierce resistance to the invaders. The loss of the Mongols was much higher, but it was quickly replenished by the prisoners. The disintegration of the Ancient Russian state had been suspended due to the consolidation of the princes before the threat of total destruction. But it was too late. The Mongols were advancing rapidly into Russia, ruining one portion after another. After 3 years of 200-thousand army of Batu was at the gates of Kiev. the beginning of the collapse of the old Russian stateThe Brave Rus defended cultural center to the last, but the Mongols were at times more. After the capture of the city he was burned and almost completely destroyed. Thus, the last unifying facts of the Russian lands - Kiev ceased to play the role of a cultural center. Simultaneously, attacks were launched Lithuanian tribes, and the German campaigns of the Catholic orders. Russia ceased to exist.

The consequences of the collapse of the old Russian state

By the end of the 13th century almost all the land of Russia was under the rule of other peoples. The Golden Horde rule in the East, Lithuania and Poland - in the West. The reasons for the collapse of the old Russian state are rooted in fragmentation and lack of coordination among princes, and unfavorable foreign policy situation. the collapse of ancient States brieflyThe Destruction of the state and stay under foreign oppression catalyzed the desire to recover the unity of all Russian lands. This led to the formation of powerful of Muscovy and later the Russian Empire.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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