Transfer the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow – an important step in the formation of the Russian state and the rise of Moscow. The unique geographical location, the growing influence of the Moscow Principality in the North-Eastern States and connecting the policy of the Moscow princes quickly made Moscow the new center of Russian power.
Chronicles, written after the death of Andrei Bogolyubsky, mention about Moscow as about a city in which there live Muscovites – the residents of Moscow. The name of the city is found in the Chronicles of many military events of the time. Moscow became a dot on the map in which to meet friends, and repelled enemies. Recent small town quickly becomes a special city personal reign. The transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow would not take place if the mid-fourteenth century, the latter did not possess the necessary size and influence.
The Famous Ivan Kalita has made Moscow the center of not only political but also religious life. To this centre of worship and a place of permanent residence of Metropolitan Vladimir on the Klyazma. The passage of time and the constant maneuvering between the rebellious princes, Tatar puppets and their own rebellious people decreased the significance of Vladimir. The battle for the status of the center of Russian Orthodoxy broke out between Moscow and its eternal rival - Tver.
Transfer the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir was accompanied by a bitter struggle between Moscow and Tver. The princes of these lands eagerly sought to please the Tatar Khan, trying to persuade the all-powerful Mongols to their side. Meanwhile, a monk of one of the Tver monastery in Constantinople wrote a complaint to the Metropolitan Peter. Was expressed the facts of simony (the distribution of Church offices), and neglect of Church duties.
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For the Lord of all Russia there was a real threat of deposition. But such an event would not be possible without the approval of many of the Russian clergy and Church Affairs of the Tatar khans and their intermediaries chose not to intervene. For them, it was the taxes and the tribute regularly brought Russian princes. And the spiritual side of life khans prefer not to discuss the policy of the Church influence is not provided.
The Ascent of Peter on the throne of the Metropolitan, not without the influence of the Moscow princes. Gaining spiritual authority over the Orthodox, Peter did not forget the rendered services and fully supported the Moscow rulers. He had lived in Moscow, and died there, and was buried. Numerous tributes and petitions of the Moscow princes did their job – late Metropolitan Peter was canonized under the name of the first of Moscow and all Russia the Wonderworker. The transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir on the Klyazma to Moscow was already half solved the issue.
The Successor of Peter was novobasmanny Greek Feognost. At the end of 1327, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Isaiah appointed him Metropolitan of Kiev with a permanent place of service in Moscow.
In 1328 Feognost visited the North-Eastern Russian lands, which, at the request of the Galician and the Lithuanian princes, had a separate Metropolitanate. But Feognost was not satisfied with the modest position of the Patriarch of the backwater town. His aim was to unite Northern and Eastern Russia under an Orthodox cross. That's when it finally became possible to transfer the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow. The date of an upcoming event was coordinated with Constantinople. Feognost set a goal to exceed all known Russian cities and to make Moscow a joint centre of the Orthodox world.
Perhaps the transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow by Prince Kalita and would not have taken place if it were not so active in support of the new Metropolitan. When it was completed the construction of the assumption Church, and in 1328 it was built two stone churches-an unheard-of innovation for the capital. The Church of St. Peter the Apostle and the St. Ivan of the ladder were another step in strengthening the significance of Moscow.
In the mid 30-ies of the 14th century, the active work of Feognost, the Metropolitan of the post brought the first significant results. Canonization miracle-worker of Peter was attracted in Moscow mass of pilgrims and priests. Constant violent religious activity has not gone unnoticed in Constantinople Patriarchate-the impact of the new Metropolitan was extended to all the Russian land.
At the highest levels have discussed the transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow. 1326 year was a period of final decision. Full approval of the Moscow princes, by that time it bore the title of "Patriarch" of the support of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the policy of non-intervention of the Golden Horde to finish the job. The transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow was completed.
The event was a landmark for the Moscow Prince. It repeatedly strengthened the position of secular power, equating it with the spiritual. Feognost was entirely on the side of Ivan Kalita, helping the latter in joining the neighboring lands of the Moscow Principality. For example, Feognost greatly enjoyed the privilege of the popes to impose and to remove the curse not only on individuals, but even in the city and the land. So he put a curse on the inhabitants of Pskov and its environs because they refused to give the Prince of Tver Khan Ulugbek, thereby causing the owner of the Golden Horde in the new raids and destruction. Anathema gave a significant result – Prince of Tver Alexander Mikhailovich left Pskov and went to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After that, the curse was lifted.
It is Difficult to give a full assessment of all the benefits that has brought new capital, the transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow. Date of this event (1326 year) is reflected in many Chronicles and annals as a turning point in the life of the Moscow Principality.
According to ancient ideas about the universe, both temporal and spiritual power are equal and United. Therefore, the fact that the Imperial city being the town lived and the Emperor, and the Metropolitan, it was natural and desirable.
Based on these principles, both secular and spiritual authority was equally beneficial to the transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow. Year 1328-y remembered by chroniclers of the Church festivals, which in this period has been especially widespread.
It was a time of relatively peaceful coexistence of the Moscow Principality and the Golden Horde – Moscow grew rich and prospered. Princely court and the court of the Metropolitan were near, and in splendor and wealth was not inferior to each other. Lush processions and services to mark the submission to the bishops gathered all the color of the Church hierarchy with the guests from the Eastern Russian lands and from Constantinople itself. All the magnificent festivities were held in Moscow with a large gathering of people. It was possible to challenge Moscow's claims to the surrounding land, but religious authority was indisputable: ignoring the Metropolitan of Moscow was threatened with excommunication.
One of the most important facts which the transfer of the Metropolitan Department from Vladimir to Moscow, still held, was the provision of a variety of important benefits and cash allowances. Compared to what was received by the Church authorities in the neighbouring principalities, benefits were unheard of, and cash donations – are enormous. The princes of Moscow risked nothing – their position was so strong that they could with confidence choose among the bishops most loyal to. played a significant role, and the unique geographical position of Moscow, and the closeness of the relationship with Constantinople. An important argument was that the Metropolitan of all Russia does not infringe upon anybody's interests among the ecclesiastical authorities, therefore, were equally loyal to all bishops. Metropolitan Peter is the establishment of the supremacy of the Moscow Patriarchate, and his successor worthily completed the transformation of Moscow into the capital of the Orthodox faith.
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