Buinichi field memorial complex. The Defense Of Mogilev


2018-03-28 11:46:13




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The Soviet Union, can be said to have entered the Second world war, to put it mildly, unfortunate. The advancing German forces literally swept lethargic, poorly organized resistance in its path. A crushing blow came in the BSSR: history of Belarus began to replenish tragic pages from the first days of the war.

Panic organized retreat

Now spread the idea that the USSR was preparing itself to attack Nazi Germany. In some circles it causes some skepticism: after all, after the Declaration of war, the Red Army showed a very weak combat capability. What to say if a week after the outbreak of hostilities, the enemy already took Minsk?

Buinichi fieldThe circumstances of the capture of the capital of the Republic do not honor Soviet strategy: in a short time were surrounded and were defeated 23 divisions on the Western front. In captivity were 324 thousand people, and more than 300 thousand died: history of Belarus, hitherto not known of such a great defeat.

Frightening for morale

Comrade Stalin responded to the incident in his characteristic manner, said at a meeting of the Politburo of the ruined (to put censorship) Lenin inheritance. And already on July 22 the Western front commander Pavlov and six generals involved in the defense of the capital of Belarus, was arrested and shot for treason. Major General Kopets chose not to wait for the inevitable terrible fate and shot himself after learning about the losses suffered by the aircraft in the first day of the war.

Not too helpful. After a very painful defeat, the Red Army was demoralized, unable to provide quality resistance. The Nazis almost seamlessly moved inland, passing the Mogilev seemed inevitable.


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Ready for defense

Preparations for the defense of the city was carried out feverishly. July 5, General Bakunin took command of the 61st corps, whose task was the defense of Mogilev. On the same day division of the corps took part in the fighting.

 history of BelarusIn the city formed the militia units. On 10 July they already had about 12 thousand people. In a matter of days had done a great job: anti-tank ditch, constructed bunkers and dugouts, dug a system of trenches.

A weak supply demonstrated by the recollections of direct participants in the events. So, Colonel Voevodin recalled that arming the militia was a daunting task. Military stores, apparently bursting so that the volunteer connections we had to go on places of fights and collect a trophy (mainly German) arms.

Its borders, the militia was held, while it was perhaps a Herculean effort defending their land: the defense of Mogilev lasted 23 days and ended in defeat, but the miracles of heroism of defenders the city was not in vain. Every minute of desperate resistance played against the Germans: a huge country received a reprieve for the mobilization of forces.

Folk feat

The Attack on Mogilev, the Germans began on July 12, choosing his favorite tactics "ticks". On the North side of town managed to get around relatively easy: the 53rd infantry division, fell under the brunt, was completely destroyed, the command was interrupted. But on another front the Nazis were a nasty surprise: there they lay in wait for the heroic 172 division under the command of major-General Romanov.

On the Buinichi field (near the village of Buinichi) the fight took 388-th infantry regiment, Colonel Kutepov. The identity of this commander became legendary. It was a military, that is, from God: talented, courageous, competent, not afraid to take responsibility.

the defense of MogilevTerrible battle lasted 14 hours, the loss on both sides was huge. 70 German tanks, thrown into the breach, Soviet soldiers managed to destroy 39. Participants in the events later recalled that the artillery support was insufficient, the supply chain, especially in ammunition - unsatisfactory (and where, if you are already mid-July, it was carried out only from the air, and there in 1941 was dominated by the Luftwaffe). But let the firebombs and should not be a regular weapon, well-equipped army, perfectly equipped, the Nazis had to withdraw.

The next day, 13 July, the 3rd Panzer division, the enemy made another attempt to break through to the city, but again failed. This time the battle lasted 10 hours. 172 division to 22 July was held the Buinichi field (in Mogilev in this time I had already started street fighting).

Non-handed German awards

The Resistance of Soviet troops was an unpleasant surprise for the Germans who felt it necessary to hide from your dear Fuhrer bitter truth. The rate reported is gained at the beginning of the month a local victory, and this was the reason for several incidents. When Buinichi field shook from the explosions of shells and Mogilyov still controlled Soviet troops, the German military, having met carousing in the city that believed long ago taken, was straight to the local headquarters of the red Army.

Buinichi field in Mogilev In the same story plunge fascists, three cars drove award “For the capture of Moscow” - Hitler seriously believed that this momentous event is not far off (can you blame him with such a weak awareness). Non-handed the medals still exist, their happy owner became Mogilev regional Museum.

Eternal memory

It Should be noted that the Buinichi field repeatedly witnessed how people enthusiastically killing each other. In 1595 there was a bloody battle between the forces of the peasant rebels under the leadership of Severin Nalivaiko and troops of the Lithuanian Principality. The rebels defeat had no chance (too forces were unequal), but managed to escape. In 1812, the Russians have fought there with Napoleon's army. During the second world war Buinichi field again plenty soaked with blood.

May 9, 1995 at the place where fiercely fought the Soviet soldiers opened the memorial complex, designed by architects Chalenko and Baranovsky.

memorial complex Buinichi field

Memorial complex

It occupies more than 20 hectares and begins with the entrance decorated with an elegant arcade. From one of the four alleys you can reach the Central part of the composition – of the chapel, in which are buried the remains of the defenders of the city. Their names (those known) are carved on the marble slabs placed along the walls of the room.

The complex is a small artificial pond called lake of Tears. This is a symbolic tribute to the tears and grief of mothers of children who were taken away by the war. Near the chapel is also a Museum of military equipment, some of the exhibits which are unique.

battle on the Buinichi field

The Monument

One of the avenues radiating from the center of the complex, dedicated to Konstantin Simonov, the author of many famous works (in particular, “Wait for me”). Then placed a stone with a commemorative inscription over the Buinichi field scattered the ashes of the poet after his death.

Simonov indeed witnessed clashes: it was near Mogilev on 13-14 July and personally knew Colonel Kutepov, emotional and professional qualities that were evaluated very highly. During the war Simonov served as a war correspondent «Izvestia», and the battle on the Buinichi field was his first combat experience, cut deep into the heart.

The heroism of the defenders of the city made on Konstantin Mikhailovich so deep an impression that he even petitioned for the assignment of Mogilev title of hero-city, repeatedly came, met with participants in the events.

village buynichi

“Yeah, we live and keep”

Note Simon's "Hot day" was published in «Izvestia» July 20. Before the fall of Mogilev, called for the purposes of secrecy the city of D, he remained for eight days, but the courage with which the Soviet troops were busy defending the borders, it became a good stimulus to bolster the morale of the red Army. Subsequently, Mogilev was even called the father of Stalingrad, and the Buinichi field forever became a symbol of courage, unbroken will, the desire to protect the homeland from the enemy.

Militarily, the heroism of the defenders of the city, too, were not in vain: their efforts have served as a deterrent for invaders, lost here precious time which we weight in gold for both sides.

The Memorial complex “Buinichi field” – visited place. Belarusians, in General, treat their history very carefully: take care of monuments to the fallen soldiers, even in remote villages, showing respect for the heroism of those who sacrificed for future generations.

Article in other languages:

AR: https://www.tostpost.com/ar/education/978-buinichi.html

BE: https://www.tostpost.com/be/adukacyya/1674-buyn-ckae-pole---memaryyal-ny-kompleks-abarona-mag-leva.html

DE: https://www.tostpost.com/de/bildung/1671-buynichskoe-feld---gedenkst-tte-verteidigung-mogilev.html

ES: https://www.tostpost.com/es/la-educaci-n/1676-buynichskoe-campo---monumento-la-defensa-de-la-ciudad-de-mogilev.html

HI: https://www.tostpost.com/hi/education/978-buinichi-mogilev.html

JA: https://www.tostpost.com/ja/education/977-buinichi-mogilev.html

KK: https://www.tostpost.com/kk/b-l-m/1674-buynichskoe-pole---memorialdy-keshen-or-anys-mogileva.html

PL: https://www.tostpost.com/pl/edukacja/1677-buynichskoe-pole---pomnik-obrona-mohylewa.html

PT: https://www.tostpost.com/pt/educa-o/1674-buynichskoe-campo---memorial-defesa-mogileva.html

TR: https://www.tostpost.com/tr/e-itim/1680-buynichskoe-alan---an-t-kompleksi-savunma-mogilev.html

UK: https://www.tostpost.com/uk/osv-ta/1676-buynichskoe-pol---memor-al-niy-kompleks-oborona-mogil-ova.html

ZH: https://www.tostpost.com/zh/education/1066-buinichi.html

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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