In the 16-17th centuries familiar to us today of the ministries and departments did not exist. Analogues of served orders. Their peculiarity was that they duplicated each other, was to end do not understand the function of the particular order. Sometimes the problem was impossible to solve. However, among them were the local order.
It is about its functions and features will be discussed in this article.
So, what was the Agency? The local order in the 16th and 17th centuries, or local hut in later times, occupied a Central place in the management of the Moscow state. It was the second largest after Bit office. If the last distributed key positions and posts, then the local order managed local and patrimonial land ownership.To understand his real significance, let us turn to the key concepts of land-use types.
In the 16-17th century Muscovy was a single centralized state. However, this process was very long. Before that in Russia there was only one kind of land use – the patrimony. Literally, “father”. Compare the modern "stepfather" - the words have a common root.
Birthplace – this estate, which passed from father to son. The tradition was so strong that the right was considered sacred. Even when capturing enemy lands, no one could think of ways to take the land from the owner. The government, in our sense of the word, does not qualify for this. The owner of such land was called the Lord. It was the highest title in this country from the founding of the state until the reforms of Peter the Great, i.e., thousand-year tradition. A feature of this holding was that the boyar could join with his land to any state that creates a kind of enclave. Imagine a situation where, say, the owner of the land plot in the Novosibirsk region has decided to join the US or France. By the laws of the 15th-16th centuries, it was quite possible. So, Moscow dragged on its side for almost all of Ryazan boyars, making this earth the likeness of a donut. The Ryazan princes had nothing to do, how to join Muscovy.
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The Estate – it is fundamentally different possession. The landlord is not a Lord and nobleman.
It performs the functions of state military service. For it and gets the ground. If Prince didn't like one or another landlord, he could easily take his land. This is the fundamental difference from the patrimony.
In terms of land use, it can be concluded that the role played by the local order:
Even the uninitiated in our country can understand the kind of power used by the official who appointed the earth. The Prince of Moscow, and with the beginning of the reign of Ivan the terrible Tsar, as a rule, are not engaged in the distribution of pieces of land to their future soldiers.
The Right to ownership were given Bit, however, the local order – it is an order that can determine how best land and swampy. From this Department depended very much for the future destiny of man. Oddly enough, but bribes and bribery played a minor role in the distribution. The extra money is simply not needed in a feudal society that is fed from the products of agriculture. Of fundamental importance was the origin of the genus. If a gentleman was a native of noble boyar families, he got the best of the estate. For “slaves”, i.e. immigrants from the peasants, meant the “thin” allotments.
Until the 16th-17th centuries, the Muscovite state did a complicated way of centralization. Fragmentation, constant wars, the transition from one Principality to another has created a lot of problems among the nobles. Their patrimony is sometimes impossible to document. The local order was at the disposal of the books, which were kept in dynasty land. However, the transition to unified management caused by bureaucratic problems. Not all data from all lands came to a single office. These nobles had for a long time to pester the local order. Some have got the status of the “knights”, i.e. obezzemeleniya boyars, whose ancestors once owned vast lands. Many of them joined the ranks of the nobility.
The Land, of course, they received, but that was not the property of, and payment for the service.
Of Course, the main Bit was an order. He was appointed estates and fiefdoms, however, the survey did local.
Subsequently, the role of the Department increased. In addition to the traditional functions of the archive and the office at Bit order, its task was to include the collection of all taxes and taxes from land, census and survey and the recruits in the army.
The local order – it is the second largest Department, as mentioned above. People “street” it didn't take. At the head of the order was the Lord, who, as a rule, included in the Duma. Sometimes it is replaced by a clerk of the Council that, in principle, was equivalent. He had two assistants in the clerk and about 200 employees-clerks. With the growth of the functions of the state reached 500 people.
The local order is considered to be the first Agency in Russia, where they began to prepare surveyors. Students were split between departments (tables). Their numbers went up to 100 people. The training lasted about 2-3 years. The scholars studied mathematics, grammar, surveying business, sketching, technique of evaluation of the quality of the earth.
If someone complains to modern bureaucracy, tell him about the order of consideration of the request the local order in the 16-17th centuries.
The Procedure is similar to the modern judicial process. Anyone had experience, knows how many months, and sometimes years it can last....
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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