Many branches of science apply in practice the theory of functional systems P. K. Anokhin, a Testament to its universality. Academician considered a student of I. P. Pavlova, only in his student years he was fortunate to work under the guidance of V. M. Bekhterev. The influence of the fundamental views of these great scientists pushed P. K. Anokhin to the creation and substantiation of the General theory of functional systems.
Some results of Pavlov's studies and are now being studied in the educational institutions. It should be noted that Darwin's theory is not removed from the curriculum, but concrete evidence of its truth is not made available to the scientific community. It is perceived “faith”.
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The Theory of functional systems P. K. Anokhin on the contrary built on the basis of extensive experimental database, clearly structured methodology. However, this concept of the academician brought many years of observations, practices, experiments, and theoretical study results. Not the last role in the formation of a systematic approach to the problem of purposeful activities was played by the experiments of Pavlov, Bekhterev, Sechenov. However, the concept of functional systems cannot be called “copy” or “continuing” theories of these authors because of the difference in methodology, the overall structure.
A detailed examination of the concepts can be noted that the positions of the methodology authors is understood and explained quite differently.
|Methodological principles used in the concepts of authors|
|P. K. Anokhin||Pavlov|
|The Author does not support the concept of the universality of the methodology for all Sciences. Stresses the importance of the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on mental processes.||The Versatility of the methodology the subject of all Sciences, is the principal postulate of the scientific study of mental processes (most likely, it is an attempt to bring the study of consciousness to the level of “scientific” by means of mechanical transfer learning methods from other fields of science).|
|Distinguishes between laws that operate in living matter and inorganic world. Justifies its position by the presence of ‘internal focus on survival" in living organisms, which is not typical of inanimate objects.||Mental processes, according to Pavlov, subject to the observance of the laws regulating the development and functioning of the material world.|
|The term “integrity” understands the mobilization of internal forces of the body to achieve a specific goal.||“Integrity” (close relationship) is seen when exposed to the body's external factors.|
The Hierarchy of processes implies the presence of feedback, which implies the influence on the control center coordinated elements of the system. On the basis of these interactions stand out level of a hierarchical structure:
|The Body is considered as one within the other levels of the organization. The hierarchy is seen as a vertical management organization or pyramidal organization of control centres without the possibility of reverse impact of downstream components of the system.|
|Mechanisms of reflection of reality is dynamic, not static, are formed due to various external factors, the programmed objectives in a specific period of time. The body has the ability of advancing reflection.||Conditional and unconditioned reflexes of Pavlov occur independently of other reactions of the body and consist of two processes-inhibition and activation.|
|Consciousness cannot be reduced to physiological reactions, arising on the basis of their development.||Elemental thinking occurs on the basis of a combination of certain reflexes resulting from a particular feeling or character.|
|Anokhin Piotr Kuzmich, the Creator of the theory of functional systems, based on the tenet of “the law of things – most stuff". Therefore, all processes are controlled by inherent laws. Consequently, the structure of the world of laws similar to the principle “dolls”, not “pyramids”. Since the management is done with different laws and methods of study must be different.||The Concept is based on the tenet of “the law of things – outside things”, which indicates the independence of the law from a managed process. Thus build the hierarchy of subordination of laws (pyramid). Consequently, all processes are subject to universal laws with respect to living, of inanimate nature, of mental formations.|
The basic methodological principles of the authors allow us to conclude about their ‘opposites". The theory of functional systems Pyotr Anokhin could not be a logical extension of the materialist doctrine of I. Pavlov.
Historical fact are differences between the Creator and Objective psychology Pavlov. Thanks to the vindictiveness and pettiness of the last Bekhterev was awarded the Nobel prize.
The author of the theory of functional systems describes the functioning of the school Pavlova as the scoring of multiple hypotheses (accept on faith) against the backdrop of one of the fundamental discoveries (conditional reflex). Indeed, the works of the famous physiologist (Pavlov's multiple volumes of media) – discussion with staff of key hypotheses and assumptions.
Scientific proceedings Pavlov recognized by the international community was, for its time, quite progressive, however, "reflexology" decorated Bekhterev, Pavlov had a missing theory of objectivity. She studied the impact of human physiology on his socialization and behavior.
It Should be noted that after the mysterious death of Vladimir Mikhailovich and “Available” and “Objective psychology”, as a scientific course, had been “frozen”.
Studying the heritage spondylitis and Anokhin, you will notice some common principles in the methodology of study of the subject. Worthy of attention and the fact that the theoretical assumptions of both authors has always been based on case studies, observations. While Pavlov had made “the imposition of devastating reviews” just because of personal dislike.
Fundamentals of the theory of functional systems was laid in the thirties of the twentieth century through the study of the interaction of the Central and peripheral nervous activity. Practical experience Peter Kuzmich received all-Union Institute of experimental medicine named after A. M. Gorky, served as the basis for the establishment in the forties of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR and the Leningrad Institute of experimental medicine.
Academic able to study neural activity not only on the biological level. The first steps have been made in studies of the embryological aspects of the functioning of higher nervous activity. In the end, structural and functional approaches in systems theory Anokhin considered the most perfect. It has identified private-sector mechanisms and their integration into a more complex system of the highest order.
Describing the structure of behavioral reactions, academician came to the conclusion about the integration of private mechanisms in a holistic behavioral act. This principle was called "functional system". Not a simple sum of the reflexes, namely combining them into complexes of a higher order, according to the theory of functional systems, initiates human behavior.
Using the same principles can be seen not only complex behavioral responses, but also of individual motor acts. Self-regulation is the main effective principle in the theory of the functionality of...
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