What is the chromatophores of algae, fish, cold-blooded animals

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2018-03-18 01:10:59

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At the words "chameleon" or "octopus" from an Association with bright colors, changing each other. Green leaves and grass, colorful flowers and fruits, a variety of coloring aquarium fish coloring and amazing animals. All this world that surrounds us. This diversity of living organisms owe special cell structures – the chromatophores. What are these strange formations, what is their function and how they work – more on that in this article.what is the chromatophores

Color carriers

It is translated the word "chromatophores". What is this substance, it is necessary to clarify in accordance with the various groups of living organisms. In crustaceans, molluscs, fish, amphibians, reptiles is reflective cells and cells containing pigment. They are responsible for coloration of eyes and skin and are formed only during embryogenesis in the neural crest. After a period of ripening they spread in the body. The tone in white color, they are divided into cantafora (yellow), erythrophore (red), iridophore (shining), leucophore (white), melanofory (black or brown). The structure of chromatophores in different groups differently, and we will return to this issue below.what is the chromatophores of algae

Photosynthetic plastids

What is the chromatophores of algae? It odnoimennyi organelles of brown and green algae belt or star-shaped, containing colored granules (chlorophyll and carotenoids). The microorganisms and bacteria is a membraneless organelles of various shapes and for various purposes. For example, the chromatophores of hlamidomonada represented by the chloroplast in the form of bowls (in which starch is stored) with a red pigment cell that contains hematochrome (red pigment). Thanks to him, it simplest has the ability to sense light. Single-celled algae Chlorella chromatophores are represented by granules of chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b, floating in large numbers in the cytoplasm of cells. With their help, this seaweed provides the most efficient photosynthesis from the minimum of resources. Thus, protozoa and unicellular algae characterized by that in addition to photosynthetic functions of chromatophores-stocking, and light. It should be noted that the chromatophores of algae differ from chloroplasts of higher plants is more simple structure and other types of chlorophyll (green pigment with magnesium complex).chromatophores of hlamidomonada

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The Pigment cells of animals

In humans and many animals have cells that contain only one pigment – melatonin. These cells are found in skin, wool, hair and feathers, in the iris and retina of the eye. The concentration depends on the saturation of the color. These cells are called chromaticity, they are formed throughout the life of the organism and can be of only one type-melanocytes.

The specifics of the work

What are chromatophores? The idea of their work, which is necessary for their classification, were formed in the 60-ies of the last century. The latest data of biochemistry did not change these provisions, but specify the principles of their work. The chromatophores are two types: biochrome and hemochrome. The first is a true (real) pigments-carotenoids (various derivatives of carotene) and pteridine. They absorb one part of the visible light and reflect another. Structural color (hemochrome) form color by means of interference or scattering (reflection waves of the same length and transmission of other wavelengths).cell function

Color classification

The Division of chromatophores according to the color is rather arbitrary. And here's why. Cantafora and erythrophore may be contained in one cell, and then the coloring will depend on the number of yellow and red pigments. Iridotomy is hemochrome containing crystals of guanine. The crystals reflect light and give a shimmering color. Suolanen melanophore has a high light-absorbing ability and creates black and brown colors.

The Biological role of the pigments

Melanin – the most common pigment in living organisms is due to the absorption of light performs the functions of cells of the shield. It does not transmit ultraviolet rays in the deeper layers of the skin, protecting the internal tissues from radiation damage. Do not underestimate the role of pigment in the mechanisms of adaptability of living organisms. What is the chromatophores in the life of the insect pollinators and the plants they pollinated, is known to everyone. Body color plays an important role in the protection from enemies, stalking, warning of danger and reproductive behavior. Chlorophyll, bacteriorhodopsin-photosynthetic pigments, and hemoglobin and hemocyanin-respiratory Chromogens. chromatophores has membrane

Property change

The Most interesting and mysterious phenomenon is the change of coloration of some animals. This phenomenon is called physiological colour change. This mechanism is complex and continues to amaze scientists. Quite a lot of representatives of different phylogenetic branches in the evolution of acquired this ability. Chameleons and cephalopods (octopuses and cuttlefish) – quite far from each other the organisms in the evolutionary ladder of life, but absolute leader in the ranking of the most “volatile”. It's amazing, but the mechanisms of chromatophores is the same.the structure of the chromatophores

How do they do it

Some representatives among cephalopods, arthropods, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians and reptiles have skin elastic as rubber, cell. Their chromatophores are membrane and filled with paint like watercolor tubes. Each cell alone – is a ball, at the excitation-drive, stretched a lot of muscles-dilators (dilatation). They stretch the chromatophores, increasing its area many times, sometimes sixty. And they do it very quickly – for half a second. Chromatophores in the pigment granules can be in the center or scattered throughout the cell, they can be a lot or a little. Each dilator nerves connected with the command post-the brain of the animal. Color changes occur under the influence of two groups of factors: physiological (changes in environmental factors or pain) and emotional. Fear, aggression, attraction to the opposite sex and rapt attention-all these emotional experiences change the color of the animal.cantafora and erythrophore

Cytology process

When the animal is at rest, all the pigment grains are at the center and the skin becomes pale (white or yellowish). It was such a matte piece of glass looks like a cuttlefish with a black ink stain of the bag. When the dark pigment is in the branches of the chromatophores, the skin becomes dark. The combination of pigments of different layers and gives the full range of shades. Green and blue colors result from the refraction of light in crystals of guanidine in the upper layers of the skin. Skin color can change quickly and capture the whole body or parts of it, sometimes creating a very intricate pattern. In addition, the chromatophores can descend into the deeper layers of skin or rise in the surface.Chlorella chromatophores

Main commander – eyes

Scientists have found a close relationship between vision and Maine coloring. The light through the organ of vision affects the nervous system and it sends signals to the chromatophores. Some stretched, others are reduced, and this achieves the maximum matching paint for masking. It is interesting that even blinded the octopus can change colour – it perceives color and even suction cups, and, if there is at least one, the octopus will change color. It's amazing what intricate patterns it can be repeated on your body. There is evidence that an octopus was able in seconds to reproduce the text of the newspaper, which was next to the aquarium. And it's like mysticism.

Some interesting facts

In addition to the amazing abilities of octopi and chameleons to change color they have and a few of the amazing features that you never knew.chromatophores function

The brain of the octopus is the most advanced among the invertebrates. The largest octopus weighed 180 pounds. It was 8 metres long (captured in 1945). Some octopuses can walk on land, relying on the tentacles.

One of the most poisonous animals in the world – globalcalldata inhabitant of the Indian ocean. Once it bite people die within 1.5 hours. And there's no cure.the structure of the chromatophores

The smallest chameleon-brookesia of Madagascar are smaller than 3 centimeters and the biggest – Malagasy, grows up to 70 centimeters in length. They are practically deaf, but will see the smallest insect at a distance of 10 metres. The angle of view of 360 degrees, and each eye sees its picture of the world.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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