To be able to understand what was the policy of war communism, a brief look at the public mood in the turbulent years of the Civil war, and the situation of the Bolshevik party during this period (its Part in the war and government policy).
1917-1921 years were the hardest period in the history of our country. So they took a bloody war with many warring parties and a difficult geopolitical situation
War communism: a brief on the situation of the CPSU (b)
In this time of crisis in various parts of the former Empire for every piece of its land fought a lot of contenders. The German army; local national forces seeking to establish their own state on the ruins of the Empire (for example, the formation of the CCM); the local people's enterprises, which were commanded by the regional authorities; the poles invaded in 1919 in the Ukrainian territory; the white guard counterrevolutionaries; the Federal recent formation of the Entente; and finally, the Bolshevik units. In these circumstances, absolutely necessary key to the victory was a complete concentration of forces and the mobilization of all available resources for the military defeat of all enemies. In fact, this mobilization of the Communists and was war communism pursued by the leadership of the CPSU (b) from the first months of 1918 to March 1921.
War communism: a brief about the nature of the regime
In the course of implementing the policy caused a lot of contradictory opinions. Its main points were the following steps:
- the nationalization of the whole complex of industry and the banking system;
- the state monopolization of foreign trade;
- forced labor conscription of the entire population able to work;
- food dictatorship. This was the most odious to the peasants, because made a violent confiscation of the grain in favor of the soldiers and the starving city. Requisitioning and today is often set as an example of the atrocities of the Bolsheviks, however, which was smoothed considerably the food problem of workers in cities.
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War communism: a brief about the reaction of the population
Frankly speaking, war communism was a force compulsion of the masses to increase the intensity of work for the victory of the Bolsheviks. As already mentioned, the main part of the discontent of Russian peasants at the time of the country - caused the surplus. However, in fairness, I must say that the same technique was used, and the whites. It logically followed from the situation in the country since the First world war and the Civil war completely destroyed the traditional trading links between rural and urban areas. This has led to the deplorable state of many industrial enterprises. There was thus dissatisfaction with the policy of military communism in the cities. Here, instead of the expected increase in productivity and economic recovery, on the contrary, there was a weakening of discipline in the enterprises. Replace the old frame to the new (which were Communists, but not always skilled managers) led to a noticeable decline of industry and the decrease in economic performance.
The End of the civil war: brief on the main
Despite all the difficulties, the policy of war communism kept prepared for her role. Though not always successful, however, the Bolsheviks were able to gather all forces against the counter-revolution and to stand strong in battles. However, it sparked popular demonstrations and seriously undermine the authority of the CPSU (b) in the peasantry. The last such mass performance was in Kronstadt that occurred in the spring of 1921. The result was Lenin initiated the transition to the so-called New economic policy. The NEP in 1921 in the shortest time possible helped to restore the economy.
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
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