Magnetic properties of matter


2018-03-17 23:26:08




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If placed in a magnetic field of any item, it is “behavior” and the type of internal structural changes will depend on the material from which the object is made. All known substances can be divided into five main groups: paramagnets, ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, ferrimagnets and diamagnetics. According to this classification distinguish between the magnetic properties of matter. To understand what lies behind the specified terms, consider each group in more detail.

Substances, exhibiting the properties of paramagnetism, characterized by a magnetic permeability with a positive sign, regardless of the values of the external magnetic field, which is the subject. The most famous representatives of this group are nitrous oxide and gaseous oxygen, metals of alkaline earth and alkali groups, as well as ferrous salts.

The High magnetic susceptibility of the positive sign (reaching 1 million) inherent to ferromagnetic materials. Being dependent on the intensity of the external field and temperature, the susceptibility varies widely. It is important to note that since the moments of elementary particles of different sublattices in the structure are equal, then the total torque is zero.

As the name, and on some properties they are close to ferromagnetic substances. They share high dependence of the susceptibility from the heat and field strengths, however, there are differences. The magnetic moments are located in the sublattice of atoms to each other are not equal, therefore, unlike the previous group, the total moment is nonzero. The substance intrinsic spontaneous magnetization. The connection of the sublattices are antiparallel. The most well-known ferrites. The magnetic properties of substances in this group is high, so they are often used in the technique.


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Of Particular interest is a group of antiferromagnets. Upon cooling, such substances below a certain temperature limit, the atoms and their ions are placed in the structure of the crystal lattice, naturally change their magnetic moments, acquiring protivoparazitarnae orientation. An entirely different process occurs when heating substances – he recorded the magnetic properties characteristic of the group of paramagnetic materials. Examples include carbonates, oxides, etc.

And finally the diamagnetics. The magnetic properties of substances of this group do not depend on the field strength and the value of magnetic susceptibility is negative. If the substance has a covalent bond, it is “clean” diamagnetic. Representatives - gold, copper, inert gases, etc.

The Magnetic properties of substances are widely used in modern technology. For example, the coils of the transformer windings wound on magnetic materials. High magnetic permeability and magnetized to saturation even in a field of low intensity, means narrow hysteresis loop on the chart, as well as minor losses during the magnetization reversal that is in demand in electrical engineering. If the magnetic properties of matter correspond to soft magnetic material, for products characterized by large flow, limited only by saturation. In practice, this means the ability to reduce the dimensions of the magnetic circuit, thereby reducing the mass of the device. However, the advantages of lies and lack of – generates an alternating field in such a material eddy currents, causing heat, so a compromise solution is the reclaiming of the conductor.

Another type of materials-magnetic, coercivity which is at least 4000 amperes per meter. This means that their magnetization reversal is needed of the magnetic field with high tension, after which the material retains the magnetic properties, becoming a permanent magnet.

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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